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  • Open Neural Tube Defects (ONTDs)

    Posted: 08/25/2016

    Open Neural Tube Defects (ONTDs) Neural tube defects are problems with the way the brain, spinal cord, or spine forms before birth. These problems occur in about 1 in every 1,500 newborn babies each year. What are open neural tube defects? During pregnancy, the brain and spine begin as a flat plate of cells. This plate of cells then rolls into a tube, called the neural tube. If all or part of the neural tube fails to close, this leaves an opening. This is known as an open neural tube defect, or ONTD. Th...

  • Oligodendroglioma in Children

    Posted: 08/25/2016

    Oligodendroglioma in Children What is an oligodendroglioma? The brain is part of the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS also includes the spinal cord. A tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue. An oligodendroglioma is a type of CNS tumor called a glioma. These are tumors of the glial cells, the supporting cells of the brain. There are several types of glioma, depending on the type of cells involved and the location in the brain. Oligodendroglioma is a rare tumor that starts in the oligodendrocytes. The...

  • Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome in Children

    Posted: 08/25/2016

    Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome in Children What is obesity hypoventilation syndrome? Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is a breathing problem. It affects some children who are obese. Poor breathing causes too much carbon dioxide and too little oxygen in the blood. This is a rare but life-threatening issue. Your child will need treatment right away. When your child breathes, fresh air (oxygen) enters tiny sacs in his or her lungs. Tiny blood vessels run through the walls of these air sacs. When yo...

  • Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    Posted: 08/25/2016

    Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery What is off-pump CABG? Coronary artery bypass surgery, commonly known as CABG, is a type of heart surgery. Surgeons perform this type of surgery to bypass blockages in the coronary arteries. An “off-pump CABG” is a CABG performed without the use of a heart-lung machine (cardiopulmonary bypass). This means the heart continues to provide blood to the rest of the body during the surgery. It is sometimes referred to as “beating heart surgery.” In another method used d...

  • Osteoid Osteoma

    Posted: 08/25/2016

    Osteoid Osteoma What is an osteoid osteoma? An osteoid osteoma is a type of bone tumor. It is not cancer (benign). It remains in the same place it starts. It will not spread to other bones or parts of your body. The center of an osteoid osteoma is the nidus. It consists of growing tumor cells, blood vessels, and cells that eventually form bone. A bony shell surrounds the nidus. Usually, osteoid osteomas are small tumors that measure less than an inch across. They typically form in the long bones, especi...

  • Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy (OPMD)

    Posted: 08/25/2016

    Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy (OPMD) What is oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy? Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a rare genetic condition. It causes weakness in the muscles around the upper eyelids and part of the throat called the pharynx. The condition may harm vision and cause problems swallowing and talking. OPMD affects both men and women. It often first appears between 40 and 60 years of age. As the disease slowly progresses, the muscle weakness can extend into the neck and shoul...

  • Oligohydramnios

    Posted: 08/25/2016

    Oligohydramnios What is oligohydramnios? In this condition, there is too little amniotic fluid around your baby in pregnancy. It occurs in about 4 in 100 pregnancies. Your baby needs amniotic fluid to grow. This watery fluid is inside the amniotic sac (membrane). It’s sometimes called the bag of waters. Your baby stays in this fluid for all of pregnancy. It helps to cushion and protect your baby. Amniotic fluid also helps your baby’s lungs, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract grow. The fluid is made by ...

  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Posted: 08/25/2016

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea What is obstructive sleep apnea? Obstructive sleep apnea occurs when your breathing is interrupted during sleep, for longer than 10 seconds at least 5 times per hour (on average) throughout your sleep period. These periods are called hypopneas when your breathing is reduced and you're not taking in enough oxygen. They're called apneas if your breathing completely stops. Your breathing typically stops because something is blocking your upper airway, such as the muscles, tongue, an...

  • Occupational Asthma

    Posted: 08/25/2016

    Occupational Asthma What is occupational asthma? You may get occupational asthma by breathing in irritants at work. It is often reversible. The symptoms may go away when you avoid the irritants. But, long term exposure can cause lasting damage. Examples of workplace irritants include: Dusts Gases Fumes Vapors What causes occupational asthma? Some airborne irritants in the workplace include: Irritant Examples Type of occupations/ environments at risk Chemical dusts and vapors Isocyanates, trimellitic anh...

  • Otitis Externa

    Posted: 08/25/2016

    Otitis Externa What is otitis externa? Otitis externa is an inflammation, irritation, or infection of the outer ear canal. This is the channel leading from the outer ear to the ear drum. Water that stays trapped in the ear canal (such as when swimming) may: Provide a source for the growth of bacteria and fungi Soften the skin and let infectious organisms get into the skin Wash away the ear wax which acts as a natural guard against infection What causes otitis externa? It is more common in children but c...