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Radical Prostatectomy
Radical Prostatectomy (Prostatectomy, Radical Prostatectomy, Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy, Radical Suprapubic Prostatectomy, Radical Perineal Prostatectomy, Nerve-Sparing Prostatectomy, RP, RPP, RSP) Procedure Overview What is a prostatectomy? A prostatectomy is a surgical procedure for the partial or complete removal of the prostate. It may be performed to treat prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A common surgical approach to prostatectomy includes making a surgical incision and...
Kidney Transplantation Procedure
Kidney Transplantation Procedure (Kidney Transplant, Renal Transplant) Procedure overview What is a kidney transplant? A kidney transplant is a surgical procedure performed to replace a diseased kidney with a healthy kidney from another person. The kidney may come from a deceased organ donor or from a living donor. Family members or individuals who are unrelated but make a good match may be able to donate one of their kidneys. This type of transplant is called a living transplant. Individuals who donate...
Cryotherapy for Prostate Conditions
Cryotherapy for Prostate Conditions (Also known as: Cryosurgery and Cryoablation) Procedure Overview What is cryotherapy? Cryotherapy is a procedure that involves killing cancer cells by freezing them and surrounding them with ice crystals. Tiny needles are placed directly into the tumor then argon gases are passed through the needles and exchanged with helium gases. This causes a freezing and warming cycle. A urethral warming catheter keeps the urethra warm throughout the procedure to prevent the ureth...
Circumcision
Circumcision (Penis Foreskin Removal) Procedure overview Circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin that covers the tip of the penis. When performed, it is usually done on the first or second day after the baby’s birth. Circumcision can be done on older children and adults, but this is more complicated. Circumcision is a relatively simple procedure that is performed in the hospital and has few complications. But there has been some debate in recent years over whether a circumcision is medicall...
Cystography
Cystography (Cystourethrography, Voiding Cystography, Voiding Cystourethrography, VCUG) Procedure Overview What is cystography? Cystography is a diagnostic procedure that uses X-rays to examine the urinary bladder. Still X-ray pictures or fluoroscopy (a study of moving body structures—similar to an X-ray "movie") may be used. During cystography, contrast dye is injected into the bladder. Contrast refers to a substance taken into the body that causes the particular organ or tissue under study to be seen ...
Retrograde Cystography
Retrograde Cystography (Cystography - Retrograde) Procedure overview What is retrograde cystography? Retrograde cystography is a diagnostic procedure that uses X-rays to examine the urinary bladder. X-rays are made of the bladder after it has been filled with a contrast dye. Contrast refers to a substance taken into the body that causes the particular organ or tissue under study to be seen more clearly. This examination allows the doctor to assess the bladder's structure and integrity. During retrograde...
Retrograde Pyelogram
Retrograde Pyelogram (Retrograde Ureteropyelogram, Retrograde Pyelography, Retrograde Ureteropyelography) Procedure overview What is a retrograde pyelogram? A retrograde pyelogram is a type of X-ray that allows visualization of the bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis. Generally, this test is performed during a procedure called cystoscopy – evaluation of the bladder with an endoscope (a long, flexible lighted tube). During a cystoscopy, contrast dye, which helps enhance the X-ray images, can be introduced...
Intravenous Pyelogram
Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP, Intravenous Urography, IVU, Excretory Urography) Procedure overview What is an intravenous pyelogram? An intravenous pyelogram (IVP) is a type of X-ray that allows visualization of the kidneys and ureters after the injection of a contrast dye. The dye helps enhance the image on an X-ray film. As the contrast dye moves into and through the kidneys, ureters, and bladder, X-rays taken at short intervals can capture its movement. A delay in the contrast dye moving through the uri...
Prostate/Rectal Sonogram
Prostate/Rectal Sonogram (Prostate/Rectal Sonography) Procedure overview What is a prostate/rectal sonogram? A prostate/rectal sonogram is a noninvasive (the skin is not pierced) procedure used to assess the size, shape, and location of the prostate gland and to assess the rectum. A sonogram uses ultrasound technology to allow quick visualization of the prostate and related structures from outside the body. A prostate/rectal sonogram uses a handheld probe called a transducer that sends out ultrasonic so...
Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder X-ray
Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder X-ray (KUB [Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder], KUB X-ray, Flat Plate of the Abdomen X-ray) Procedure overview What is a kidneys, ureter, and bladder X-ray? A kidney, ureter, and bladder (KUB) X-ray may be performed to assess the abdominal area for causes of abdominal pain, or to assess the organs and structures of the urinary and/or gastrointestinal (GI) system. A KUB X-ray may be the first diagnostic procedure used to assess the urinary system. X-rays use invisible electromagnetic ...
Kidney Scan
Kidney Scan (Renal Scan, Renogram, Renal Scintigraphy) Procedure overview What is a kidney scan? A kidney scan is a specialized radiology procedure used to assess the function and structure of the kidneys, as well as the perfusion (blood flow) to the kidney tissue. A kidney scan is a type of nuclear radiology procedure. This means that a tiny amount of a radioactive substance is used during the procedure to assist in the examination of the kidneys. The radioactive substance, called a radionuclide (radio...
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Kidney
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Kidney (Renal CT Scan) Procedure overview What is a CT or CAT scan of the kidney? Computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a noninvasive diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to produce horizontal, or axial, images (often called slices) of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than standard X-rays. In standard X...
Antegrade Pyelogram
Antegrade Pyelogram (Antegrade Nephrostogram) Procedure overview What is an antegrade pyelogram? An antegrade pyelogram is a type of X-ray used to diagnose an obstruction of the upper urinary tract. During the procedure, a contrast dye is injected into a portion of the ureter (narrow tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder) closest to the kidneys called the renal pelvis. The flow of the contrast dye can then be observed with X-ray images as it moves from the kidneys into the ureters and u...
Renal Angiogram
Renal Angiogram (Angiogram-Kidneys, Renal Angiography, Renal Arteriogram, Renal Arteriography) Procedure overview What is a renal angiogram? An angiogram, also called an arteriogram, is an X-ray image of the blood vessels. It is performed to evaluate various vascular conditions, such as an aneurysm (ballooning of a blood vessel), stenosis (narrowing of a blood vessel), or blockages. A renal angiogram is an angiogram of the blood vessels of the kidneys. A renal angiogram may be used to assess the blood f...
Renal Venogram
Renal Venogram (Venogram-Renal, Renal Venography, Venogram of the Kidneys) Procedure overview What is a renal venogram? A renal venogram is a diagnostic procedure that provides information about the circulatory health of the kidneys. A renal venogram uses X-rays and intravenous (IV) contrast dye to visualize the veins within the kidneys and the veins carrying blood away from the kidneys. Contrast dye causes the blood vessels to appear opaque on the X-ray image, allowing the doctor to visualize the blood...
Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP)
Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) Procedure overview What is a transurethral resection of the prostate or TURP? A transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is a surgical procedure that removes portions of the prostate gland through the penis. A TURP requires no external incision. The surgeon reaches the prostate by inserting an instrument through the urethra (the narrow channel through which urine passes from the bladder out of the body). This instrument, called a resectoscope, is abou...
24-Hour Urine Collection
24-Hour Urine Collection (24-hour urine, urine volume) Procedure overview What is a 24-hour urine collection? Click Image to Enlarge A 24-hour urine collection is a simple diagnostic procedure that measures the components of urine. The test is noninvasive (the skin is not pierced), and is used to assess kidney (renal) function. Twenty-four hour urine collection is performed by collecting a person's urine in a special container over a 24-hour period. The container must be kept cool during this time until...
Cystoscopy for Women
Cystoscopy for Women (Cystourethroscopy) Procedure overview Cystoscopy is a diagnostic procedure that allows the doctor to directly examine the urinary tract, particularly the bladder, the urethra, and the openings to the ureters. Cystoscopy can assist in identifying problems with the urinary tract, such as early signs of cancer, infection, strictures (narrowing), obstruction, and bleeding. A long, flexible, lighted tube, called a cystoscope, is inserted into the urethra (the tube that allows urine to p...
Cystometry
Cystometry (Cystometrogram, CMG) Procedure overview What is cystometry? Cystometry is a diagnostic procedure used to identify problems with the filling and emptying of the urinary bladder. This test measures the amount of volume/urine in the bladder compared with the bladder pressure and the person's perception of bladder fullness. Cystometry provides information about the muscle function, mechanics, and nerve response of the bladder and urinary tract. A normally functioning bladder sends messages to th...
Kidney Biopsy
Kidney Biopsy (Biopsy-Kidney, Renal Biopsy, Biopsy-Renal, Needle Aspiration of the Kidney, Percutaneous Kidney Biopsy) Procedure Overview What is a kidney biopsy? A biopsy is a procedure performed to remove tissue or cells from the body for examination under a microscope. During a kidney biopsy, tissue samples are removed with a special needle to determine if cancer or other abnormal cells are present, or to determine how well the kidney is working. There are two types of kidney biopsies: Needle biopsy ...
Lithotripsy
Lithotripsy (Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy, ESWL, Shock Wave Lithotripsy) Procedure Overview What is lithotripsy? Lithotripsy is a noninvasive (the skin is not pierced) procedure used to treat kidney stones that are too large to pass through the urinary tract. Lithotripsy treats kidney stones by sending focused ultrasonic energy or shock waves directly to the stone first located with fluoroscopy (a type of X-ray “movie”) or ultrasound (high frequency sound waves). The shock waves break a large st...
Prostate Biopsy
Prostate Biopsy (Prostate Gland Biopsy, Transrectal Prostate Biopsy, Fine Needle Biopsy of the Prostate, Core Biopsy of the Prostate) Procedure Overview What is a prostate biopsy? A biopsy is a procedure performed to remove tissue or cells from the body for examination under a microscope. A prostate biopsy is a procedure in which prostate gland tissue samples are removed with a special biopsy needle or during surgery to determine if cancer or other abnormal cells are present. The diagnosis of cancer is ...
Uroflowmetry
Uroflowmetry (Urine Flow Studies, Urine Flow Test, Urodynamic Studies) Procedure Overview What is uroflowmetry? Uroflowmetry is a simple, diagnostic screening procedure used to calculate the flow rate of urine over time. The test is noninvasive (the skin is not pierced), and may be used to assess bladder and sphincter function. Uroflowmetry is performed by having a person urinate into a special funnel that is connected to a measuring instrument. The measuring instrument calculates the amount of urine, r...
Vasectomy
Vasectomy Vasectomy is surgical procedure you may choose if you are a man and you do not want to father any more children. The word "vasectomy" comes from the two tubes called the "vas deferens" that are cut during the operation. Procedure overview The vas deferens carry the sperm produced in your testicles to your urethra, which is the tube inside your penis. Vasectomy is usually done by a surgeon in the office or in an outpatient setting using local anesthesia. Evidence shows that vasectomy is one of ...
Robotic Prostatectomy
Robotic Prostatectomy (Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy) Procedure overview Radical prostatectomy is surgery to remove your prostate gland. This is the gland below the male bladder that helps produce semen. Your prostate can be removed several ways. One way is for the surgeon to make a fairly large incision (cut) into your lower abdomen to reach your prostate. This is called an open procedure. Another kind of surgery involves making several smaller cuts and removing the prostate using a tiny ...
Kidney Ultrasound
Kidney Ultrasound (Renal Ultrasound, Kidney Ultrasonography, Kidney Echography) Procedure overview What is a kidney ultrasound? A kidney ultrasound is a noninvasive (the skin is not pierced) procedure used to assess the size, shape, and location of the kidneys. Ultrasound technology allows quick visualization of the kidneys and related structures from outside the body. Ultrasound may also be used to assess blood flow to the kidneys. A kidney ultrasound uses a handheld probe called a transducer that send...