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Urology

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Prostate/Rectal Ultrasound
Prostate/Rectal Ultrasound What is a prostate/rectal ultrasound? A prostate or rectal ultrasound is an imaging test that uses sound waves to look at your prostate or your rectum. The healthcare provider uses a device called a transducer to make the images of your prostate or rectum. The transducer sends out sound waves that bounce off your organs and other structures. The sound waves are too high-pitched for you to hear. The transducer then picks up the bounced sound waves. These are made into pictures ...
24-Hour Urine Collection
24-Hour Urine Collection What is a 24-hour urine collection? A 24-hour urine collection is a simple lab test that measures what’s in your urine. The test is used to check kidney function. A 24-hour urine collection is done by collecting your urine in a special container(s) over a full 24-hour period. The container(s) must be kept cool until the urine is returned to the lab. Urine is made up of water and dissolved chemicals, such as sodium and potassium. It also contains urea, which is made when protein ...
Vasectomy
Vasectomy What is a vasectomy? Vasectomy is surgery a man may choose if he does not want to father any more children. It's permanent male birth control. During the surgery, two tubes called the vas deferens are cut and sealed. The vas deferens carry sperm from testicles to the urethra (the tube inside the penis). Once they are cut, sperm can't get into the semen or out of the body. The testes still make sperm, but the sperm die and are absorbed by the body. A man who's had a vasectomy still makes semen ...
Urine Flow Test
Urine Flow Test What is a urine flow test? A urine flow test calculates the speed of urine flow over time. It may be used to check how the bladder and sphincter are working. The bladder is part of the urinary tract. It’s a hollow muscular organ that relaxes and expands to store urine. It then contracts and flattens to empty urine through the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body (urethra). The sphincter muscle is a circular muscle. It closes tightly, like a rubber band, around the bla...
Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP)
Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) What is a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)? The prostate gland is found only in males. It sits below the bladder and wraps around the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the body. The prostate helps produce semen. A transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is surgery to remove parts of the prostate gland through the penis. No incisions are needed. The surgeon reaches the prostate by putting an instrument into the end of the penis...
Robotic Prostatectomy
Robotic Prostatectomy What is a robotic prostatectomy? The prostate gland is found only in males. It sits below the bladder and wraps around the urethra. The prostate helps make semen. Prostatectomy is surgery to remove the prostate gland. During the procedure, the seminal vesicles, nearby tissues, and sometimes pelvic lymph nodes are also removed. When prostate cancer spreads, the pelvic lymph nodes are often one of the first places it goes. The prostate can be removed several ways. One way is for a su...
Retrograde Cystography
Retrograde Cystography What is retrograde cystography? Retrograde cystography is an imaging test that uses X-rays to see the bladder. X-rays are made of the bladder after it has been filled with a contrast dye. The dye lets the radiologist see your bladder and nearby tissues more clearly. Retrograde cystography can also be performed using computerized tomography (CT), another type of imaging. During retrograde cystography, dye is injected into the bladder. X-rays are taken of the bladder while it's fill...
Retrograde Pyelogram
Retrograde Pyelogram What is a retrograde pyelogram? A retrograde pyelogram is an imaging test that uses X-rays to look at your bladder, ureters, and kidneys. The ureters are the long tubes that connect your kidneys to your bladder. This test is usually done during a test called cystoscopy. It uses an endoscope, which is a long, flexible, lighted tube. During a cystoscopy, the healthcare provider can inject contrast dye directly into the ureters. The contrast helps parts of the body show up more clearly...
Renal Venogram
Renal Venogram What is a renal venogram? A renal venogram is an imaging test to look at the veins in and around your kidneys. Your healthcare provider may also use the test to find out what is causing your high blood pressure (hypertension). This test is done by a radiologist who is a doctor that specializes in radiology. For the test, the radiologist injects a contrast dye into the kidney. He or she uses X-ray images to watch the dye as it flows through the blood vessels in the kidneys. X-rays use a sm...
Renal Angiogram
Renal Angiogram What is a renal angiogram? A renal angiogram is an imaging test to look at the blood vessels in your kidneys. Your healthcare provider can use it to look at the ballooning of a blood vessel (aneurysm), narrowing of a blood vessel (stenosis), or blockages in a blood vessel. He or she can also see how well blood is flowing to your kidneys. For the test, the radiologist injects a contrast dye into the artery that brings blood into the kidney. Then he or she uses X-ray images to watch the dy...
Radical Prostatectomy (RP)
Radical Prostatectomy (RP) What is a radical prostatectomy? Radical prostatectomy is surgery to remove the prostate gland. During the procedure, the seminal vesicles, nearby tissues, and often some pelvic lymph nodes are also removed. The prostate gland is found only in males. It sits below the bladder and wraps around the urethra (the tube that carries urine out of the body). The prostate helps make semen. The seminal vesicles are the 2 sacs that connect to the vas deferens (tubes that carry sperm from...
Prostate Biopsy
Prostate Biopsy What is a prostate biopsy? The prostate gland is found only in males. It sits below the bladder and wraps around the urethra (the tube that carries urine out of the body). The prostate helps make semen. A biopsy is a procedure used to remove a small piece of tissue or cells from the body so it can be examined under a microscope. In a prostate biopsy, prostate gland tissue is taken out with a biopsy needle or during surgery. The tissue is checked to see if there are cancer or other abnorm...
Lithotripsy
Lithotripsy What is lithotripsy? Lithotripsy is a procedure used to treat kidney stones that are too large to pass through the urinary tract. It works by sending focused ultrasound energy or shock waves directly to the stone. The shock waves break a large stone into smaller stones that will pass through the urinary system. Lithotripsy lets people with certain types of kidney stones avoid surgery. To find the stone, doctors use fluoroscopy. This is a series of moving X-ray pictures. They may also use ult...
Kidney Ultrasound
Kidney Ultrasound What is a kidney ultrasound? A kidney ultrasound is an imaging test that uses sound waves to look at your kidneys. It can check the size, shape, and location of your kidneys. It also lets your healthcare provider see how well blood is flowing in your kidneys. The healthcare provider uses a device called a transducer to make the images of your kidneys. The transducer sends out sound waves that bounce off your kidneys. The sound waves are too high-pitched for you to hear. The transducer ...
Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder X-ray
Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder X-ray What is a kidney, ureter, and bladder X-ray? This type of X-ray may be done to check the stomach for causes of pain. It may also be done to check the organs and structures of the urinary or gastrointestinal (GI) system. The X-ray may be the first diagnostic procedure used to check the urinary system. X-rays use beams of energy that pass through body tissues onto a special film and make a picture. They show pictures of your internal tissues, bones, and organs. Why might ...
Kidney Transplant
Kidney Transplant What is a kidney transplant? A kidney transplant is a surgery done to replace a diseased kidney with a healthy kidney from a donor. The kidney may come from a deceased organ donor or from a living donor. Family members or others who are a good match may be able to donate one of their kidneys. This type of transplant is called a living transplant. People who donate a kidney can live healthy lives with one healthy kidney. A person getting a transplant most often gets just 1 kidney. In ra...
Kidney Scan
Kidney Scan What is a kidney scan? A kidney scan is an imaging test that looks at your kidneys. Your healthcare provider can also see how well blood is flowing in your kidneys. A kidney scan is a type of nuclear imaging test. This means that a tiny amount of a radioactive matter is used during the scan. The radioactive matter (radioactive tracer) is absorbed by normal kidney tissue. The radioactive tracer sends out gamma rays. These are picked up by the scanner to make a picture of your kidneys. The are...
Kidney Biopsy
Kidney Biopsy What is a kidney biopsy? A biopsy is done to remove tissue or cells from the body to exam under a microscope. The tissue sample is removed with a needle to check for cancer or other abnormal cells. It also helps check how well the kidney is working. There are 2 types of kidney biopsies: Needle biopsy . After an anesthetic is given, the healthcare provider inserts the biopsy needle into the kidney to get a sample. Ultrasound or computerized tomography (CT scan) may be used to guide the need...
Intravenous Pyelogram
Intravenous Pyelogram What is an intravenous pyelogram (IVP)? An IVP is an imaging test used to look at the kidneys and ureters. The ureters are the narrow tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. During the test, the radiologist injects a contrast dye into one of your veins. He or she uses X-ray images to watch the contrast dye as it moves from the kidney into the ureter and then to the bladder. Dye that moves too slowly or not at all may mean that you have a blockage in the blood flow t...
Cystoscopy for Women
Cystoscopy for Women What is cystoscopy? Cystoscopy is a procedure that lets the health care provider view the urinary tract, particularly the bladder, the urethra, and the openings to the ureters. Cystoscopy can help find problems with the urinary tract. This may include early signs of cancer, infection, narrowing, blockage, or bleeding. To do this procedure, a long, flexible, lighted tube, called a cystoscope, is put into the urethra and moved up into the bladder. Here, the doctor can look closely at ...
Cystometry
Cystometry What is cystometry? Cystometry is a test used to look for problems with the filling and emptying of the bladder. The bladder is part of the urinary tract. It’s a hollow muscular organ that relaxes and expands to store urine. Cystometry measures the amount of urine in the bladder. That figure is compared with the bladder pressure and how full you think your bladder is. The result tells your doctor about muscle function, mechanics, and nerve response of the bladder and urinary tract. Normally, ...
Cystography
Cystography What is cystography? Cystography is an imaging test that can help diagnose problems in your bladder. It uses X-rays. They may be X-ray pictures or fluoroscopy, a kind of X-ray "movie." During cystography, the healthcare provider will inject insert a thin tube called a urinary catheter and put contrast dye into your bladder. The contrast dye will let the healthcare provider see your bladder more clearly. He or she will take X-rays of the bladder. Cystography is sometimes combined with other p...
CT Scan of the Kidney
CT Scan of the Kidney What is a CT scan of the kidney? CT scan is a type of imaging test. It uses X-rays and computer technology to make images or slices of the body. A CT scan can make detailed pictures of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, organs, and blood vessels. They are more detailed than regular X-rays. In a CT scan, an X-ray beam moves in a circle around your body. This allows many different views of the same part of the body. The X-ray information is sent to a computer th...
Cryotherapy for Prostate Cancer
Cryotherapy for Prostate Cancer What is cryotherapy for prostate cancer? The prostate gland is found only in males. It sits below the bladder and wraps around the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the body. The prostate helps make semen. Cryotherapy involves freezing the cancer cells and cutting off their blood supply. Tiny needles are placed right into the tumor. Argon gases are passed through the needles and exchanged with helium gases. This causes a freezing and warming cycle. The frozen, d...
Antegrade Pyelogram
Antegrade Pyelogram What is an antegrade pyelogram? An antegrade pyelogram is an imaging test to find a blockage (obstruction) in the upper urinary tract. Your urinary tract includes the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. The ureters are the narrow tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. During the test, the radiologist injects a contrast dye through a needle that is placed through the flank area of your back. The area will be cleansed with sterile material and you will be given a local anes...
Circumcision
Circumcision (Penis Foreskin Removal) Procedure overview Circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin that covers the tip of the penis. It is usually done on the first or second day after the baby’s birth. Circumcision can be done on older children and adults, but this can be more complicated because it requires general anesthesia. Circumcision is a relatively simple procedure that is done in the hospital and has few complications. But there has been some debate in recent years over whether a ci...