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Gastroenterology

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Gastric Banding Surgery for Teens
Gastric Banding Surgery for Teens (Lap band surgery) Gastric banding is a form of bariatric surgery. It is used to treat people with severe obesity who have trouble losing weight through diet or exercise alone. Procedure overview Gastric banding involves putting a small, braceletlike band around the area near the top of the stomach, near to where the esophagus leads into it. The band reduces that part of the stomach to roughly the size of a golf ball. This, in turn, decreases the amount that the person ...
Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Weight-Loss Surgery
Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Weight-Loss Surgery Procedure overview Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a type of weight-loss surgery that reduces the size of your stomach to a small pouch – about the size of an egg. It does this by stapling off a section of it. This reduces the amount of food you can take in at meals. The surgeon then attaches this pouch directly to the small intestine, bypassing most of the rest of the stomach and the upper part of the small intestine. This reduces the amount of fat and ca...
BPD/DS Weight-Loss Surgery
BPD/DS Weight-Loss Surgery If you are extremely obese and have tried without success to get your weight under control, your doctor may recommend a weight-loss surgery known as biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD/DS). The surgery has been shown to help reduce obesity and related illnesses, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes. BPD/DS is a complex weight-loss surgery that makes it hard to get enough calories, vitamins, and minerals. You'll be at high risk of de...
Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding
Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding Procedure overview Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is one of the least invasive operations available for obesity. It is also one of the more effective. It is done with a few tiny abdominal cuts (1 cm), instead of with one large cut. The surgeon puts instruments through the cuts. One of those instruments is a laparoscope, a tool with a tiny camera. The surgeon uses these tools to place a band around the top portion of the stomach, leaving a smaller p...
MR Enterography
MR Enterography (Magnetic Resonance Enterography) Procedure overview Magnetic resonance enterography, or MR enterography, is a minimally invasive imaging test that allows your doctor to obtain detailed pictures of your small bowel. It can pinpoint areas of inflammation (swelling and irritation), bleeding, and other small bowel conditions. The Digestive Tract. Click to Enlarge The procedure uses a magnetic field to create detailed images of your organs. These can then be analyzed on a computer and copied...
CT Enterography
CT Enterography (Computed tomography enterography) Procedure overview CT enterography is a diagnostic procedure that uses CT imagery and a contrast material for a better view of the interior of the small intestine. The procedure allows your doctor to determine what is causing your condition. He or she can also tell how well you're responding to treatment for a health issue, such as Crohn's disease. The Digestive Tract. Click to Enlarge Reasons for the procedure CT enterography is typically performed in ...
Proctectomy
Proctectomy Proctectomy is a surgical operation to remove the rectum, often as a result of cancer. If you have been diagnosed with rectal cancer, your treatment will depend on how far along your cancer is, as well as other factors. But for most people with rectal cancer, some type of proctectomy procedure will be needed. It may also be used to treat inflammatory bowel disease. Procedure overview Proctectomy can be done in several ways. The type that you and your surgeon choose will depend on factors suc...
Colectomy
Colectomy (Hemicolectomy, partial colectomy, or segmental resection) Procedure overview A colectomy is a surgical procedure used to treat colon cancer. The surgery involves removing a portion of the colon, or large intestine, usually about one-third to one-fourth of it. The surgeon will typically remove the portion of the colon that appears cancerous, as well as another small portion on either side of the cancerous part and some nearby lymph nodes. The remaining parts of the colon are then attached to e...
Virtual Colonoscopy for Cancer Screening
Virtual Colonoscopy for Cancer Screening Virtual colonoscopy is a procedure that is done to look for small polyps or other growths inside your colon. Polyps that grow on the inside lining of the colon sometimes turn into colon cancers. The American Cancer Society recommends that men and women begin screening for colon cancer at age 50. If you have a family history of colon cancer or are at high risk for other reasons, your health care provider may want you to begin screening even earlier. Virtual colono...
Gastric Bypass (Malabsorptive) Surgery Procedure
Gastric Bypass (Malabsorptive) Surgery Procedure (Types of bariatric surgical procedures which involve gastric bypass to some degree include: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass [RYGBP], biliopancreatic diversion [BPD], biliopancreatic diversion and duodenal switch, [BPD-DS]) Procedure overview What is gastric bypass surgery? Gastric bypass surgery, a type of bariatric surgery (weight loss surgery), is a procedure that alters the process of digestion. Bariatric surgery is the only option today that effectively tre...
Gastric Stapling (Restrictive) Surgery Procedure
Gastric Stapling (Restrictive) Surgery Procedure (Other terms that may be used include: Gastric Banding Surgery, Adjustable Gastric Banding, Vertical Banded Gastroplasty) Procedure overview What is gastric stapling (restrictive) surgery? Gastric stapling surgery, also called gastric banding surgery, is a type of bariatric surgery (weight loss surgery) procedure performed to limit the amount of food a person can eat. Bariatric surgery is the only option today that effectively treats morbid obesity in peo...
Laparoscopy
Laparoscopy (Peritoneoscopy, Gynecologic Laparoscopy, Pelviscopy, Exploratory Laparoscopy) Procedure overview Laparoscopy is a procedure used to examine the organs of the abdominal cavity. Laparoscopy utilizes a laparoscope, a thin flexible tube containing a video camera. The laparoscope is placed through a small incision in the abdomen and produces images that can be seen on a computer screen. A similar procedure can be used to look at the organs of the pelvis (gynecologic laparoscopy or pelviscopy). T...
Appendectomy
Appendectomy (Appendix Removal, Laparoscopic Appendectomy, Open Appendectomy) Procedure overview What is an appendectomy? An appendectomy is the surgical removal of the appendix, a tube about six inches long or less that branches off the large intestine. The procedure is performed to treat appendicitis, an inflammation of the appendix caused by infection. Acute appendicitis is the most common condition of the abdomen to require emergency surgery. Because of the likelihood of the appendix rupturing and c...
Cholecystectomy
Cholecystectomy (Gallbladder Removal, Open Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy) Procedure overview What is a cholecystectomy? A cholecystectomy is the surgical removal of the gallbladder, an organ located just under the liver on the upper right quadrant of the abdomen. The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile, a substance produced by the liver and used to break down fat for digestion. Types of cholecystectomies Click Image to Enlarge The gallbladder may be removed in one of two ways: Open ...
Liver Transplantation Procedure
Liver Transplantation Procedure (Liver Transplant, Hepatic Transplant) Procedure overview What is a liver transplant? A liver transplant is a surgical procedure performed to replace a diseased liver with a healthy liver from another person. The liver may come from a deceased organ donor or from a living donor. Family members or individuals who are unrelated but make a good match may be able to donate a portion of their liver. This type of transplant is called a living transplant. Individuals who donate ...
Colostomy
Colostomy Procedure overview A colostomy is an operation that creates an opening for the colon, or large intestine, through the abdomen. A colostomy may be temporary or permanent. It is usually performed after bowel surgery or injury. Most permanent colostomies are "end colostomies," while many temporary colostomies bring the side of the colon up to an opening in the abdomen. During an end colostomy, the end of the colon is brought through the abdominal wall, where it may be turned under, like a cuff. T...
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD, Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Upper GI Endoscopy, Gastroscopy, Esophagoscopy) Procedure overview What is an esophagogastroduodenoscopy? Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is a diagnostic procedure that allows the physician to diagnose and treat problems in the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract. The doctor uses a long, flexible, lighted tube called an endoscope . The endoscope is guided through the patient's mouth and throat, then through the esophagus, stomach, and du...
Colonoscopy
Colonoscopy (Lower Endoscopy) Procedure overview Click Image to Enlarge What is a colonoscopy? Colonoscopy is a diagnostic procedure that allows the doctor to examine the entire length of the large intestine. Colonoscopy can assist in identifying problems with the colon, such as early signs of cancer, inflamed tissue, ulcers, and bleeding. Colonoscopy is also used to screen for colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the U.S. and the fourth most common cancer in men and w...
Sigmoidoscopy
Sigmoidoscopy (Flexible Sigmoidoscopy, Proctosigmoidoscopy, Proctoscopy, Anoscopy) Procedure overview What is a sigmoidoscopy? A sigmoidoscopy is a diagnostic procedure that allows the doctor to examine the lower one-third of the large intestine. Sigmoidoscopy is helpful in identifying the causes of diarrhea, abdominal pain, constipation, abnormal growths, and bleeding. It may also be used to obtain biopsies and to perform procedures, such as removal of polyps or hemorrhoids. Sigmoidoscopy is also used ...
Cecostomy
Cecostomy (Percutaneous Endoscopic Cecostomy, Laparoscopic Cecostomy Tube Placement, Antegrade Enema) Procedure overview Cecostomy is a fairly new surgical procedure that is used to clear the bowels of fecal matter. It continues to be researched to improve the technique. It’s typically used for children with fecal incontinence related to severe disorders. Fecal incontinence is the inability to control your bowels, which can involve symptoms ranging from severe constipation to having a bowel movement at ...
Pediatric Appendectomy
Pediatric Appendectomy (Removal of a Child's Appendix) Procedure overview A pediatric appendectomy is a surgery that's performed to remove a child's appendix. The appendix is a small pouch that's attached to the large intestine on the lower right side of the abdomen. The appendectomy may be done as an open surgery, which involves cutting into the abdomen and directly removing the organ. Or it may be done through several smaller incisions (cuts) using a camera and small instruments. This is called a lapa...
Liver Biopsy
Liver Biopsy (Biopsy-Liver, Percutaneous Liver Biopsy) Procedure overview What is a liver biopsy? A liver biopsy is a procedure in which tissue samples from the liver are removed for examination under a microscope to look for signs of damage or disease. It is used to diagnose many liver conditions. During a liver biopsy, tissue samples are removed with a special needle to determine if cancer or other abnormal cells are present, or to determine how well the liver is working. There are three types of live...
Pancreas Scan
Pancreas Scan (Pancreas Scintigraphy) Procedure overview What is a pancreas scan? A pancreas scan is a specialized radiology procedure used to assess the pancreas for the presence of a specific type of tumor. A pancreas scan is a type of nuclear radiology procedure. This means that a tiny amount of a radioactive substance is used during the procedure to assist in the examination of the pancreas. A pancreas scan may also be used to treat certain malignant tumors of the pancreas. In many nuclear medicine ...
Upper Gastrointestinal Series
Upper Gastrointestinal Series (UGI, Upper GI Series, GI Series, Upper Gastrointestinal Tract X-ray) Procedure overview What is an upper gastrointestinal series? An upper gastrointestinal series (UGI) is a radiographic (X-ray) examination of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (first part of the small intestine) are made visible on X-ray film by a liquid suspension. This liquid suspension may be barium or a water-soluble contrast such as Gastrografin TM . If only t...
Barium Enema
Barium Enema (BE, Lower Gastrointestinal Series, Lower GI Series, Colon X-ray) Procedure Overview What is a barium enema? A barium enema is a radiographic (X-ray) examination of the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The large intestine, including the rectum, is made visible on X-ray film by filling the colon with a liquid suspension called barium sulfate (barium). Barium highlights certain areas in the body to create a clearer picture. X-rays use invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images...
Barium Swallow
Barium Swallow (Esophagography, Esophagogram) Procedure overview What is a barium swallow? A barium swallow is a radiographic (X-ray) examination of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, specifically the pharynx (back of mouth and throat) and the esophagus (a hollow tube of muscle extending from below the tongue to the stomach). The pharynx and esophagus are made visible on X-ray film by a liquid suspension called barium sulfate (barium). Barium highlights certain areas in the body to create a clearer ...
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP, ERCP of the Biliary and Pancreatic Ducts) Procedure overview What is endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography? Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a diagnostic procedure that allows the doctor to diagnose and treat problems in the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and pancreas. The procedure combines X-ray and the use of an endoscope--a long, flexible, lighted tube. The scope is guided through the patient's mouth and throat, ...
Abdominal Angiogram
Abdominal Angiogram (Angiogram-Abdominal, Arteriogram-Abdominal, Celiac and Mesenteric Arteriography, Abdominal Arteriography, Abdominal Angiography) Procedure overview What is an abdominal angiogram? An angiogram, also called an arteriogram, is an X-ray image of the blood vessels. It is performed to evaluate various vascular conditions, such as an aneurysm (ballooning of a blood vessel), stenosis (narrowing of a blood vessel), or blockages. An abdominal angiogram is an angiogram of the blood vessels of...
Gallbladder Scan
Gallbladder Scan (Cholescintigraphy, Liver-Biliary Scan, Hepatobiliary Iminodiacetic Acid [HIDA], Gallbladder Radionuclide Scan) Procedure overview What is a gallbladder scan? A gallbladder scan is a specialized radiology procedure used to assess the function and structure of the gallbladder. This procedure may also be referred to as a liver-biliary scan because the liver often is examined as well due to its proximity and close functional relationship to the gallbladder. A gallbladder scan is a type of ...
Liver Scan
Liver Scan (Liver-Spleen Scan, Liver Scintigraphy) Procedure overview What is a liver scan? A liver scan is a specialized radiology procedure used to examine the liver to identify certain conditions or to assess the function of the liver. A liver scan may also be used to follow the progress of treatment of certain conditions. This procedure may also be referred to as a liver-spleen scan because the spleen often is examined as well due to its proximity and close functional relationship to the liver. A li...
Abdominal Ultrasound
Abdominal Ultrasound (Abdominal Ultrasonography, Abdominal Sonography, Abdominal Echography) Procedure overview An abdominal ultrasound is a noninvasive procedure used to assess the organs and structures within the abdomen, such as the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, bile ducts, spleen, and abdominal aorta. Ultrasound technology allows quick visualization of the abdominal organs and structures from outside the body. Ultrasound may also be used to assess blood flow to abdominal organs. An abdominal ultraso...
Abdominal X-rays
Abdominal X-rays (Flat Plate of the Abdomen, Abdominal Radiography, KUB [Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder] X-ray) Procedure overview X-rays use invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs on film. Standard X-rays are performed for many reasons, including diagnosing tumors or bone injuries. X-rays are made by using external radiation to produce images of the body, its organs, and other internal structures for diagnostic purposes. X-rays pass through body tissu...
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Abdomen
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Abdomen (Abdominal CT Scan) Procedure overview Computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a noninvasive diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to produce horizontal, or axial, images (often called slices) of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, organs, and blood vessels. CT scans are more detailed than standard X-rays. In standard X-rays, a beam of ene...
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Pancreas
Computed Tomography (CT) Scan of the Pancreas (Pancreas CT Scan) Procedure overview What is a CT scan of the pancreas? Computed tomography (CT) scan is a noninvasive diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to produce horizontal, or axial, images (often called slices) of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than standard x-rays. In standard X-rays, a beam ...
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Liver and Biliary Tract
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Liver and Biliary Tract (CT Scan of the Liver, Biliary Tract, Pancreas, Spleen, and Gallbladder) Procedure overview What is a CT or CAT scan of the liver and biliary tract? Computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a noninvasive diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to produce horizontal, or axial, images (often called slices) of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bone...