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Tests and Procedures

Pulmonary

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Lobectomy
Lobectomy What is a lobectomy? A lobectomy is a surgery to remove one of the lobes of the lungs. The lungs have sections called lobes. The right lung has 3 lobes. The left lung has 2 lobes. A lobectomy may be done when a problem is found in just part of a lung. The affected lobe is removed, and the remaining healthy lung tissue can work as normal. A lobectomy is most often done during a surgery called a thoracotomy. During this type of surgery, the chest is opened. In most cases, during a lobectomy the ...
Thoracentesis
Thoracentesis What is thoracentesis? Thoracentesis is a procedure to remove fluid or air from around the lungs. A needle is put through the chest wall into the pleural space. The pleural space is the thin gap between the pleura. The pleura are a double layer of membranes that surrounds the lungs. Inside the space is a small amount of fluid. The fluid prevents the pleura from rubbing together when you breathe. Excess fluid in the pleural space is called pleural effusion. When this happens, it’s harder to...
Sleep Study
Sleep Study What is a sleep study? The stages of sleep range from light to deep. Each stage has characteristics that can be measured. A sleep study is a number of tests done at the same time during sleep. The tests measure specific sleep characteristics and help to diagnose sleep disorders. A sleep study may also be called polysomnogram. The basic recordings done during a sleep study may include: Electroencephalography (EEG) . This measures brain wave activity. Electrooculogram (EOG). This measures eye ...
Sinus X-ray
Sinus X-ray What is a sinus X-ray? A sinus X-ray is an imaging test that uses X-rays to look at your sinuses. The sinuses are air-filled pockets (cavities) near your nasal passage. X-rays use a small amount of radiation to create images of your bones and internal organs. X-rays are most often used to find bone or joint problems, or to check the heart and lungs. A sinus X-ray is one type of X-ray. A sinus X-ray is simple and quick, and does not involve any instruments that are put into your body (noninva...
Pulse Oximetry
Pulse Oximetry What is pulse oximetry? Pulse oximetry is a test used to measure the oxygen level (oxygen saturation) of the blood. It is an easy, painless measure of how well oxygen is being sent to parts of your body furthest from your heart, such as the arms and legs. A clip-like device called a probe is placed on a body part, such as a finger or ear lobe. The probe uses light to measure how much oxygen is in the blood. This information helps the healthcare provider decide if a person needs extra oxyg...
Pulmonary Function Tests
Pulmonary Function Tests What are pulmonary function tests? Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are non-invasive tests that show how well the lungs are working. The tests measure lung volume, capacity, rates of flow, and gas exchange. This information can help your healthcare provider diagnose and decide the treatment of certain lung disorders. There are 2 types of disorders that cause problems with air moving in and out of the lungs: Obstructive. This is when air has trouble flowing out of the lungs due to...
Pulmonary Angiogram
Pulmonary Angiogram What is a pulmonary angiogram? An angiogram is an X-ray image of the blood vessels. It’s also called an arteriogram. It’s done to look at blood vessels that have problems. A pulmonary angiogram is an angiogram of the blood vessels of the lungs. The procedure is done with a special contrast dye injected into the body’s blood vessels. This is done in the groin or arm. The dye shows up on X-rays. Fluoroscopy is often used during this test. This is like an X-ray “movie.” This lets your h...
Positron Emission Tomography
Positron Emission Tomography What is a PET scan? A positron emission tomography (PET) scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging test. It is used to examine various body tissues to identify certain conditions by looking at blood flow, metabolism, and oxygen use. PET scans may also be used to see how well the treatment of certain diseases is working. For a PET scan, a tiny amount of a radioactive substance, called a radioactive tracer is used to show the metabolism of a particular organ or tissue. This t...
Pleural Biopsy
Pleural Biopsy What is a pleural biopsy? A biopsy is a procedure done to remove a sample of tissue from the body so it can be examined. The pleura are a double layer of membranes that surrounds the lungs. A pleural biopsy is a procedure to take a small piece of the pleura. This is done with a special biopsy needle. Or it’s done during surgery. The biopsy is done to look for infection, cancer, or another condition. There are three types of pleural biopsy: Needle biopsy. This is the most common method. A ...
Peak Flow Measurement
Peak Flow Measurement What is peak flow measurement? Peak flow measurement is a quick test to measure air flowing in and out of the lungs. The measurement is called the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). It’s also known as the peak expiratory flow (PEF). Peak flow measurement is mostly done by people who have asthma. Peak flow measurement can show: The amount of air breathed in The amount of air breathed out The rate at which the air is breathed in and out from the lungs During the test, you blow forcefu...
Mediastinoscopy
Mediastinoscopy What is mediastinoscopy? A mediastinoscopy is a procedure used to examine the mediastinum. This is the space behind the breastbone (sternum) in the middle of the chest, between the two lungs. It contains: Lymph nodes The heart and its great vessels The windpipe (trachea) The tube that leads down to the stomach (esophagus) The thymus gland, a part of the immune system This area can be examined with a tool called a mediastinoscope. This is a long, thin, flexible tube that has a light and a...
Lung Scan
Lung Scan What is a lung scan? A lung scan is an imaging test to look at your lungs and help diagnose certain lung problems. A lung scan may also be used to see how well treatment is working. A lung scan is a type of nuclear imaging test. This means that a tiny amount of a radioactive matter is used during the scan. The radioactive matter called tracer sends out gamma rays. These rays are picked up by the scanner to make a picture of your lungs. A lung scan can be a ventilation scan or a perfusion scan....
Lung Transplant
Lung Transplant What is a lung transplant? A lung transplant is surgery done to remove a diseased lung and replace it with a healthy lung from another person. The surgery may be done for one lung or for both. Lung transplants can be done on people of almost all ages from newborns to adults up to age 65. Types of lung transplant procedures include: Single lung. This is the transplant of one lung. Double lung. This is the transplant of both lungs. Bilateral sequential. This is the transplant of both lungs...
Lung Biopsy
Lung Biopsy What is a lung biopsy? A biopsy is a procedure done to remove a sample of tissue from the body so it can be examined. A lung biopsy is a procedure to take a small piece of a lung. This is done with a special biopsy needle. Or it’s done during surgery. The biopsy is done to look for lung disease, cancer, or another condition. There are several types of lung biopsy: Needle biopsy. A numbing medicine (local anesthetic) is put on the chest. A needle is put into the lung to take out a sample. A C...
Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery
Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery What is endoscopic endonasal surgery? Endoscopic endonasal surgery is a minimally invasive technique that allows a surgeon to go through the nose to operate on areas at the front of the brain and the top of the spine. A thin tube called an endoscope is thread through your nose and sinuses, giving your surgeon access to parts of your brain that would be difficult to reach using traditional surgical approaches and often require large incisions and removal of parts of the skull...
CT Scan of the Chest
CT Scan of the Chest What is a CT scan of the chest? CT scan is a type of imaging test. It uses X-ray and computer technology to make detailed pictures of the organs and structures inside your chest. These images are more detailed than regular X-rays. They can give more information about injuries or diseases of the chest organs. In a CT scan, an X-ray beam moves in a circle around your body. It takes many images, called slices, of the lungs and inside the chest. A computer processes these images and dis...
Chest Ultrasound
Chest Ultrasound What is a chest ultrasound? A chest ultrasound is an imaging test that uses sound waves to look at the structures and organs in your chest. It can help your health care provider see how well your lungs and heart are working. A chest ultrasound can look at your lungs, heart, esophagus, mid-chest area (mediastinum), space between the lungs and chest wall (pleural space), and other structures in the chest. Your health care provider may also use ultrasound to see how blood flows through the...
Chest X-Ray
Chest X-Ray What is a chest X-ray? A chest X-ray is an imaging test that uses X-rays to look at the structures and organs in your chest. It can help your healthcare provider see how well your lungs and heart are working. Certain heart problems can cause changes in your lungs. Certain diseases can cause changes in the structure of the heart or lungs. Chest X-rays can show your healthcare provider the size, shape, and location of the following: Heart Lungs Bronchi Aorta Pulmonary arteries Middle chest are...
Chest Fluoroscopy
Chest Fluoroscopy What is chest fluoroscopy? Chest fluoroscopy is an imaging test that uses X-rays to look at how well your lungs are working. It can also look at other parts of your respiratory tract. Your respiratory tract includes your lungs, nose, throat, trachea, and bronchi. Fluoroscopy is a kind of X-ray "movie." This test uses more radiation than a standard chest X-ray. So your healthcare provider will make sure that this test is important for a diagnosis. Why might I need a chest fluoroscopy? Y...
Bronchoscopy
Bronchoscopy What is bronchoscopy? Bronchoscopy is a procedure to look directly at the airways in the lungs through a thin, lighted tube (bronchoscope). The bronchoscope is put in the nose or mouth, moved down the throat and trachea (windpipe), and into the airways. A health care provider can then see the voice box (larynx), trachea, large airways to the lungs (bronchi), and smaller branches of the bronchi (bronchioles). There are two types of bronchoscope: flexible and rigid. Both types come in differe...