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Pulmonary

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Pulmonary Function Tests
Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs, Pulmonary Function Studies, Lung Function Studies/Tests, Airflow Assessment) Procedure overview What are pulmonary function tests? Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are noninvasive diagnostic tests that provide measurable feedback about the function of the lungs. By assessing lung volumes, capacities, rates of flow, and gas exchange, PFTs provide information that, when evaluated by your doctor, can help diagnosis certain lung disorders. A normally-functioning pulmonary syst...
Thoracentesis
Thoracentesis (Pleural Tap, Pleural Fluid Analysis) Procedure overview What is thoracentesis and pleural fluid analysis? Thoracentesis is a procedure in which a needle is inserted through the back of the chest wall into the pleural space (a space that exists between the two lungs and the interior chest wall) to remove fluid or air. Pleural fluid analysis is the microscopic and chemical lab analysis of the fluid obtained during thoracentesis. The normal function of the lungs is to expand with each breath...
Oximetry
Oximetry (Oxygen Saturation, Oximetry, Ear Oximetry, Pulse Ox, Sp0 2 ) Procedure overview What is pulse oximetry? Pulse oximetry is a procedure used to measure the oxygen level (or oxygen saturation) in the blood. It is considered to be a noninvasive, painless, general indicator of oxygen delivery to the peripheral tissues (such as the finger, earlobe, or nose). How does pulse oximetry work? Oxygen in the air is breathed into the lungs. The oxygen then passes into the blood where the majority of the oxy...
Peak Flow Measurement
Peak Flow Measurement (Peak Flow Meter, PFM, Peak Expiratory Flow Measurement) Procedure overview What is peak flow measurement? Peak flow measurement is a procedure in which air flowing out of the lungs is measured. The measurement obtained is called the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), or peak expiratory flow (PEF). Peak flow measurement may be obtained using a spirometer, an instrument with a mouth piece that measures the amount of air breathed in and/or out and the rate at which the air is inhaled ...
Mediastinoscopy
Mediastinoscopy Procedure overview What is a mediastinoscopy? A mediastinoscopy is a surgical procedure performed to examine the mediastinum. The mediastinum is the space behind the sternum (breastbone) in the middle of the chest that separates the two lungs. It contains lymph nodes, the heart and its great vessels, the trachea, the esophagus, and the thymus gland. The mediastinum can be visualized by the use of an endoscopic instrument called a mediastinoscope. A mediastinoscope is a lighted, long, thi...
Pleural Biopsy
Pleural Biopsy (Biopsy-Pleural, Percutaneous Pleural Biopsy) Procedure overview A biopsy is a procedure performed to remove tissue or cells from the body for examination under a microscope. A pleural biopsy is a procedure in which a sample of the pleura (the membrane that surrounds the lungs) is removed with a special biopsy needle or during surgery to determine if infection, cancer, or another condition is present. There are three types of pleural biopsies: Needle biopsy. After a local anesthetic is gi...
Bronchoscopy
Bronchoscopy (Flexible Bronchoscopy, Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy, FOB, Rigid Bronchoscopy) Procedure overview What is bronchoscopy? Bronchoscopy is a procedure that allows the doctor to directly visualize the interior passageways of the lower respiratory tract through a bronchoscope (a long, narrow, fiberoptic, lighted tube inserted through the nose or mouth). With the bronchoscope, the doctor can see the larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), bronchi (large airways to the lungs), and bronchioles (smaller ...
Lobectomy
Lobectomy (Thoracotomy, Thoracoscopic Lobectomy, Removal of a Lobe of the Lungs, Lung Surgery) Procedure overview What is a lobectomy? A lobectomy is a surgical procedure performed to remove one of the lobes of the lungs. The procedure may be performed when an abnormality has been detected in a specific part of the lung. When only the affected lobe of the lung is removed, the remaining healthy tissue is spared to maintain adequate lung function. A lobectomy is most often performed during a surgical proc...
Lung Transplantation Procedure
Lung Transplantation Procedure (Transplant-Lung, Lung Transplant, Lung Graft) Procedure overview What is a lung transplant? A lung transplant is a surgical procedure performed to remove one or both diseased lungs from a patient and replace it with a healthy one from another person. The majority of lungs that are transplanted come from deceased organ donors. This type of transplant is called a cadaveric transplant. Healthy, nonsmoking adults who make a good match may be able to donate a part (a lobe) of ...
Lung Biopsy
Lung Biopsy (Biopsy-Lung, Closed Lung Biopsy, Transthoracic Needle Lung Biopsy, Percutaneous Needle Lung Biopsy, Transbronchial Lung Biopsy, Pulmonary Biopsy, Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery, VATS) Procedure overview What is a lung biopsy? A biopsy is a procedure performed to remove tissue or cells from the body for examination under a microscope. A lung biopsy is a procedure in which samples of lung tissue are removed (with a special biopsy needle or during surgery) to determine if lung disease or canc...
Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery
Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery Endoscopic endonasal surgery is a minimally invasive technique that allows a surgeon to go through the nose to correct problems or remove a tumor in various areas of the brain and the top of the spine. About the procedure A thin tube called an endoscope is threaded through your nose and sinuses, giving your surgeon access to parts of your brain that would be difficult to reach using traditional surgical approaches. Those techniques are more complicated and require large inci...
Sleep Study
Sleep Study (Polysomnogram) Procedure overview What is a sleep study? Sleep is a state of relative unconsciousness and stillness of the voluntary muscles (muscles that are controlled at will). The stages of sleep range from light to deep and each one has specific characteristics that can be measured. A sleep study consists of a number of medical tests performed at the same time during sleep. The tests measure specific sleep characteristics and help to diagnose sleep disorders. A sleep study may also be ...
Pulmonary Angiogram
Pulmonary Angiogram (Angiogram-Pulmonary, Pulmonary Angiography, Pulmonary Arteriogram, Pulmonary Arteriography, Angiogram of the Lungs) Procedure overview What is a pulmonary angiogram? An angiogram, also called an arteriogram, is an X-ray image of the blood vessels. It is performed to evaluate various vascular conditions, such as an aneurysm (ballooning of a blood vessel), stenosis (narrowing of a blood vessel), or blockages. A pulmonary angiogram is an angiogram of the blood vessels of the lungs. A p...
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Chest
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Chest (Chest CT Scan, Thoracic CT Scan, CT of the Thorax) Procedure overview Computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a noninvasive diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to produce horizontal, or axial, images (often called slices) of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than standard X-rays. In standard X-rays...
Lung Scan
Lung Scan (Perfusion Lung Scan, Lung Perfusion Scintigraphy, Radionuclide Pulmonary Scan, Ventilation-Perfusion Scan, V/Q Scan) Procedure overview What is a lung scan? A lung scan is a specialized radiology procedure used to examine the lungs to identify certain conditions. A lung scan may also be used to follow the progress of treatment of certain conditions. A lung scan is a type of nuclear radiology procedure. This means that a tiny amount of a radioactive substance is used during the procedure to as...
Chest X-ray
Chest X-ray (Chest Radiography, CXR) Procedure overview What is a chest X-ray? A chest X-ray is a type of diagnostic radiology procedure used to examine the chest and the organs and structures located in the chest. Chest X-rays may be used to assess the lungs, as well as the heart (either directly or indirectly) by looking at the heart itself. Certain conditions of the heart may cause changes in the lungs and/or the vessels of the lungs. Changes in the normal structure of the heart, lungs, and/or lung v...
Chest Fluoroscopy
Chest Fluoroscopy Procedure overview What is chest fluoroscopy? Chest fluoroscopy is a type of X-ray procedure used to assess the motion and function of the lungs and other structures of the respiratory tract. Fluoroscopy is a study of moving body structures, similar to an X-ray "movie." A continuous X-ray beam is passed through the body part being examined. The beam is transmitted to a TV-like monitor so that the body part and its motion can be seen in detail. Fluoroscopy, as an imaging tool, enables p...
Sinus X-ray
Sinus X-ray (Sinus Films) Procedure overview What is a sinus X-ray? A sinus X-ray is a type of X-ray used to obtain images of the sinuses. The sinuses are air-filled cavities lined with mucous membranes located within the bones of the skull. During a sinus X-ray, X-rays pass through the sinuses and form an image on a special type of film. The sinuses are usually filled with air, which appears black on X-ray film. An opaque (whitened) area on an otherwise normal film may indicate the presence of sinusiti...
Positron Emission Tomography (PET Scan)
Positron Emission Tomography (PET Scan) (PET Imaging) Procedure overview What is PET? Positron emission tomography (PET) is a specialized radiology procedure used to examine various body tissues to identify certain conditions. PET may also be used to follow the progress of the treatment of certain conditions. While PET is most commonly used in the fields of neurology, oncology, and cardiology, applications in other fields are currently being studied. PET is a type of nuclear medicine procedure. This mea...
Chest Ultrasound
Chest Ultrasound (Chest Ultrasonography, Chest Wall Ultrasonography, Chest Sonography) Procedure overview What is a chest ultrasound? A chest ultrasound is a noninvasive (the skin is not pierced) procedure used to assess the organs and structures within the chest, such as the lungs, mediastinum (area in the chest containing the heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus, thymus, and lymph nodes), and pleural space (space between the lungs and the interior wall of the chest). Ultrasound technology allows quick vis...