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24-Hour Urine Protein
24-Hour Urine Protein Does this test have other names? 24-hour albumin test, proteinuria test What is this test? This test measures the amount of protein in your urine. Healthy kidneys usually filter protein out of the blood and absorb the protein. Then they send it back into the blood while waste material is passed out of your body as urine. But when your kidneys aren't working the way they should, protein may pass into your urine. Protein in your urine is a condition called proteinuria, albuminuria, o...
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid (Urine)
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid (Urine) Does this test have other names? 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid urine, 5-HIAA, HIAA What is this test? This test finds out how much 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is in your urine. Your liver breaks down the hormone serotonin into 5-HIAA. This waste product is normally sent from your body in your urine. Tumors called functioning carcinoids secrete serotonin. Carcinoid tumors are found in the intestinal tract, lungs, appendix, and other body tissues. Why do I need this...
A1C
A1C Does this test have other names? Hemoglobin A1c; HbA1c; glycosylated hemoglobin; glycohemoglobin; Glycated hemoglobin What is this test? A1C is a blood test used to screen people to find out whether they have diabetes or prediabetes. It's also used in people who know they have diabetes to measure how well they are controlling their blood sugar and to guide their treatment decisions over time. Why do I need this test? You may need this test to check for prediabetes or diabetes. If you already know th...
Acetaminophen Drug Level
Acetaminophen Drug Level Does this test have other names? Paracetamol or Tylenol drug level What is this test? The acetaminophen drug level is a blood test used to screen for the presence of the common pain reliever acetaminophen. (Tylenol and paracetamol are among several other names for the same medicine.) This over-the-counter (OTC) medicine is used to treat pain and reduce fever. It is safe and works well in the recommended doses. But dosing mistakes are common. Acetaminophen is also often used in i...
Acetylcholine Receptor Antibody (Blood)
Acetylcholine Receptor Antibody (Blood) Does this test have other names? Muscle Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (AChR) Binding Antibody, AChR Antibody, Myasthenia Gravis Antibodies What is this test? This test measures the concentration of a substance called acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody in your blood. AChR antibodies stop the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from doing its job. Acetylcholine carries nerve signals that tell your muscle cells to contract. AChR antibodies are made if you have the ...
Acid-Fast Bacteria Culture
Acid-Fast Bacteria Culture Does this test have other names? Acid-fast bacillus smear and culture, AFB smear and culture, TB culture and sensitivity, mycobacterial culture What is this test? An acid-fast bacteria (AFB) culture is done to find out if you have tuberculosis (TB) or another mycobacterial infection. Besides tuberculosis, the other main mycobacterial infections are leprosy and a TB-like disease that affects people with HIV/AIDS. To do an AFB culture, health care providers take a sample of phle...
Acid-Fast Bacteria Smear
Acid-Fast Bacteria Smear Does this test have other names? AFB smear microscopy, AFB smear, mycobacterial smear What is this test? This test looks for a type of bacteria called acid-fast bacillus in your sputum. Tuberculosis is the most common infection from this type of bacteria. Your sputum sample is collected from mucus coughed up from your lungs. The sample is "smeared" on a glass slide and treated with a special acid-fast stain to look at under a microscope. Why do I need this test? You may need thi...
Activated Partial Thromboplastin Clotting Time
Activated Partial Thromboplastin Clotting Time Does this test have other names? Intrinsic pathway coagulation factor profile, aPTT, partial thromboplastin time, PTT, blood coagulation tests What is this test? The aPTT is one of several blood coagulation tests. It measures how long it takes your blood to form a clot. Normally, when one of your blood vessels is damaged, proteins in your blood called clotting factors come together in a certain order to form blood clots and quickly stop bleeding. The aPTT t...
Adult Lead (Blood)
Adult Lead (Blood) Does this test have other names? Lead poisoning test, BLL What is this test? This test measures the levels of lead in your blood. High levels of lead can be toxic. Complications include abdominal pain, constipation, a decline in thinking, and high blood pressure. Lead exposure can also cause reproductive problems. Women with high lead levels are more likely to have stillbirths or give birth to infants with lead poisoning. Men may have low sperm counts or abnormal sperm. You may be exp...
Albumin (Blood)
Albumin (Blood) Does this test have other names? ALB What is this test? This test measures the amount of the protein albumin in your blood. Your liver makes albumin. Albumin carries substances such as hormones, drugs, and enzymes throughout your body. This test can help diagnose, evaluate, and watch kidney and liver conditions. When your kidneys begin to fail, albumin starts to leak into your urine. This causes a low albumin level in your blood. Why do I need this test? You may have this test if your he...
Albumin (Urine)
Albumin (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urine albumin, 24-hour urine test for albumin What is this test? This test looks for a protein called albumin in your urine. The test is used to check for kidney damage or disease. Albumin helps to keep the right amount of fluid moving through your body. Your kidneys filter toxins from your blood, but they allow proteins to pass through because proteins are useful to your body. Proteins should be reabsorbed in your blood and not be passed out in your urin...
Alpha-1 Antitrypsin
Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Does this test have other names? Alpha-1-antiprotease deficiency, alpha-1-antiproteinase inhibitor deficiency, AAT deficiency, alpha-1-antitrypsin (A-1AT) deficiency What is this test? This is a blood test to help find out if liver disorders and lung diseases such as emphysema are caused by a genetic disorder called alpha-1antitrypsin deficiency. This is especially true if they show up much earlier than they normally would. This disorder is linked to abnormally low levels or a lack o...
Alpha-Fetoprotein (Amniotic Fluid)
Alpha-Fetoprotein (Amniotic Fluid) Does this test have other names? Amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein, AFAFP test What is this test? This test checks a sample of amniotic fluid. The sample can confirm that your fetus has a birth defect called an open neural tube defect. Spina bifida is an example of a neural tube defect. Amniotic fluid is the liquid that protects and feeds your fetus during pregnancy. When a developing baby has open neural tube defect, it often causes a high level of alpha-fetoprotein (A...
Alpha-Fetoprotein (Blood)
Alpha-Fetoprotein (Blood) Does this test have other names? msAFP screen What is this test? If you are pregnant, this test looks for a fetal substance called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in your blood. AFP is a protein made by your fetus' liver. The protein passes through the placenta and into your blood. The test helps find out whether your fetus has higher than normal levels of AFP. Higher levels of AFP may mean that your fetus has an abnormality, such as a neural tube defect or Down syndrome. Neural tube d...
Alpha-Fetoprotein Tumor Marker (Blood)
Alpha-Fetoprotein Tumor Marker (Blood) Does this test have other names? AFP What is this test? This is a blood test to look for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in your blood. AFP is normally made by a fetus's liver and yolk sac. It's the main protein during the first three months of development. AFP greatly decreases by age 1 and should only be found in adults in very low levels. AFP is one of several tumor markers. Tumor markers are molecules in the blood that are higher when a person has certain cancers. AFP ...
ALT
ALT Does this test have other names? Alanine aminotransferase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, SGPT What is this test? This test measures the amount of the enzyme alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in your blood. ALT, formerly called SGPT, is mostly found in your liver cells. When liver cells are injured, they release this enzyme into your blood. High levels are a sign of liver damage. This test is part of a group of tests commonly referred to as "liver function tests." Results of these tests give heal...
Ammonia
Ammonia Does this test have other names? Blood ammonia test, NH3 What is this test? This test checks the level of ammonia in your blood. The test helps find out why you may have changes in consciousness and also helps diagnose a liver disease called hepatic encephalopathy. This disease affects how your brain works, because of excess toxins, or poisons, in your body. Your liver may not work properly if you have high levels of ammonia in your blood. Ammonia is a chemical made by bacteria in your intestine...
Amphetamine Screen (Blood)
Amphetamine Screen (Blood) Does this test have other names? Amphetamine concentrations screen (blood), amphetamine screen (blood) What is this test? This test measures the amount of a drug called amphetamine in your blood. This drug is a central nervous system stimulant. This group of drugs also includes methamphetamine, or "meth." The test is most commonly used to screen for drug abuse. It's often required by the court system and some workplaces. If you show symptoms of an amphetamine overdose, such as...
Amphetamine Screen (Urine)
Amphetamine Screen (Urine) Does this test have other names? Drug test, AMP, toxicology urine screen What is this test? This test looks for amphetamine in your urine. Amphetamine is a drug that stimulates your central nervous system. It can show up in your urine long after you've taken it. Amphetamines include methamphetamine (meth) and phentermine. Amphetamine is a commonly used street drug. It makes users feel very alert and have lots of energy. Stimulants like amphetamine and methamphetamine can also ...
Amylase (Blood)
Amylase (Blood) Does this test have other names? Serum amylase What is this test? This test measures the level of the enzyme amylase in your blood. About 40% of the amylase in your body is made by your pancreas. The rest comes from your salivary glands. This test is used to find out whether your pancreas or your salivary glands are swollen. If you have a pancreatic disorder, your amylase levels are usually higher than normal. High levels can also be caused by an infection, cancer, or even alcohol or med...
Amylase (Urine)
Amylase (Urine) Does this test have other names? Amylase What is this test? This test measures how much of the enzyme amylase is in your urine. About 40% of the amylase in your body is made by your pancreas. The rest comes from your salivary glands. This test is used to find out whether your pancreas or your salivary glands are swollen. Your amylase levels are usually higher than normal if you have a problem with your pancreas. High levels can also be caused by an infection, cancer, or even alcohol or m...
Anaerobic Culture
Anaerobic Culture Does this test have other names? Wound culture What is this test? This test looks for certain bacteria in a wound or an infection in a fluid sample. These bacteria are called anaerobic because they don't need oxygen to grow. Infections caused by anaerobic bacteria can occur almost anywhere in your body. These may be oral infections, lung infections, diabetes-related foot infections, infected bites, and gangrene. Finding the specific bacteria that's causing your infection helps your hea...
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (Blood)
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (Blood) Does this test have other names? Serum angiotensin converting enzyme, SACE What is this test? This test measures how much angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is in your blood. Your ACE levels may be higher if you have a condition called sarcoidosis. In sarcoidosis, small abnormal knots of immune cells called granulomas form in various parts of the body. The most common place is in the lungs. These knots of cells may cause health problems. Granulomas can also form in...
Anion Gap (Blood)
Anion Gap (Blood) Does this test have other names? Serum anion gap What is this test? This test looks at electrically charged particles in your blood. This helps your health care provider diagnose acid-base problems. The test results are done from the results of an electrolyte panel, another blood test. Your blood contains sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate. All of these are charged particles. The value for the anion gap tells your health care provider something about which other charged particles must b...
Antidiuretic Hormone
Antidiuretic Hormone Does this test have other names? Vasopressin, arginine vasopressin, ADH What is this test? This test measures how much antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is in your blood. ADH is made by your hypothalamus. ADH keeps the amount of water in your body in balance. Certain conditions can affect the amount of ADH that your body makes. These include hyponatremia, or low sodium levels in your bodily fluids. They also include diabetes insipidus. Symptoms of this condition include urinating often and...
Antimitochondrial Antibody and Antimitochondrial M2 Antibody
Antimitochondrial Antibody and Antimitochondrial M2 Antibody Does this test have other names? AMA, mitochondrial antibody, antimitochondrial M2 antibody What is this test? This test looks for substances called antimitochondrial antibody and antimitochondrial M2 antibody in your blood. These substances are usually made by your body if you have a condition called primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). PBC is the most common autoimmune disease that affects the liver. In autoimmune diseases, the immune system att...
Antimyocardial Antibody
Antimyocardial Antibody Does this test have other names? AMA, anti-cardiac muscle antibody What is this test? This test measures how many antimyocardial antibodies (AMAs) are in your blood. AMAs are a sign of heart damage. Higher levels are linked to several forms of heart disease. They can be found in the blood before you have any symptoms of heart disease. Why do I need this test? Some people develop AMAs after heart surgery or a heart attack. Having these antibodies can be a sign of pericarditis, or ...
Antinuclear Antibody
Antinuclear Antibody Does this test have other names? ANA, fluorescent antinuclear antibody test, FANA What is this test? This blood test is done to help your health care provider find out if you have an autoimmune disease. Your immune system is your body's defense system. It protects you against foreign invaders like viruses and bacteria. In some cases, your immune system can become confused. It can think that normal cells in your body are foreign invaders. When that happens, your body can make protein...
Antiphospholipid Antibody
Antiphospholipid Antibody Does this test have other names? APA, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies What is this test? This blood test checks for antiphospholipid antibodies. These may be found in people with abnormal blood clots or autoimmune diseases. Your immune system usually creates antibodies in response to an infection or foreign invaders like bacteria. Antiphospholipid antibodies are usually made when your immune system mistakes part of your own body for a harmful substance. In this ...
Antithrombin (Activity and Antigen)
Antithrombin (Activity and Antigen) Does this test have other names? Functional antithrombin III, functional AT, AT activity What are these tests? The antithrombin activity and antigen tests are used to help find out what may be causing abnormal blood clots in your body. A blood clot (thrombus) can be good or bad, depending on the case. Your body needs to be able to form blood clots in order to stop too much bleeding in case of injury. But it's important to prevent abnormal clots that cut off blood flow...
Antitissue Transglutaminase Antibody
Anti-tissue Transglutaminase Antibody Does this test have other names? IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase, IgA Anti-tTG, celiac disease testing What is this test? This test is used to see if you have celiac disease. It is also used to see how well people with the condition are doing. It is one of several blood tests that may be used to help diagnose celiac disease. Tissue transglutaminase is an enzyme that fixes damage in your body. People with celiac disease often make antibodies that attack this enzyme....
Apolipoprotein A
Apolipoprotein A Does this test have other names? Apo A-1, apolipoprotein a-1 What is this test? This test measures the amount of apolipoprotein A in your blood. It helps your healthcare provider figure out your risk for cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein A is a protein carried in HDL ("good") cholesterol. It helps start the process for HDL to remove bad types of cholesterol from your body. In this way, apolipoprotein A can help to lower your risk for cardiovascular disease. Although apolipoprotein ...
Apolipoprotein B100
Apolipoprotein B-100 Does this test have other names? ApoB100, Apolipoprotein B, ApoB, Apolipoprotein (B) What is this test? This test measures the amount of a certain type of cholesterol called apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB) in your blood. ApoB is the main protein found in the low-density lipoproteins (LDL). LDL cholesterol is also called "bad" cholesterol because high levels of it can damage your heart and arteries. The ApoB test helps your healthcare provider figure out your risk for cardiovascular dise...
Arterial Blood Gas (ABG)
Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) Does this test have other names? ABG, systemic arterial blood gas analysis, PaO2, PaCO2, pH, or oxygen saturation test. What is this test? An arterial blood gas analysis (ABG) measures the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in your blood to see how well your lungs are working. It also measures the acid-base balance in the blood. Your kidneys and lungs keep this acid-base balance. You need this for the enzyme systems in your body to work at their best. When there is an imbalanc...
Aspartate Transaminase
Aspartate Transaminase Does this test have other names? AST, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase test, SGOT What is this test? This blood test is used to diagnose liver damage. Aspartate transaminase (AST) is an enzyme that is released when your liver or muscles are damaged. Although AST is found mainly in your liver and heart, AST can also be found in small amounts in other muscles. This test can also be used to monitor liver disease. Why do I need this test? Your healthcare provider might give you...
Bartonella Antibody
Bartonella Antibody Does this test have other names? Cat scratch disease blood test, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA) for IgM and IgG against B. henselae What is this test? This blood test screens for exposure to Bartonella henselae, the bacteria that cause cat scratch disease. These bacteria are spread by cats, especially kittens, which are more likely to be infected. The disease is usually fairly mild and clears up without treatment. But it can be more serious for people with a weakened immune...
Basic Metabolic Panel (Blood)
Basic Metabolic Panel (Blood) Does this test have other names? BMP, chemistry panel, chem 7, electrolyte panel What is this test? This blood test gives information about your body's metabolism, or how your body uses food for energy. It gives a snapshot of the health of your kidneys, your blood sugar levels, and the levels of key electrolytes, such as potassium and sodium. A basic metabolic panel test measures the levels of eight important things in your blood: Calcium. Calcium plays a role in keeping yo...
Bence-Jones Protein (Urine)
Bence-Jones Protein (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urine protein electrophoresis, UPEP, urine immunofixation electrophoresis, immunoassay for free light chains What is this test? The Bence-Jones protein urine test is used mainly to diagnose and monitor multiple myeloma, a type of cancer. An abnormal Bence-Jones test result is also linked with malignant lymphomas. These are cancers of the lymphatic system. Multiple myeloma is a blood cancer of the plasma cells. These are immune system cells tha...
Benzodiazepines (Blood)
Benzodiazepines (Blood) Does this test have other names? Benzodiazepine drug screen What is this test? This is a blood test to screen for a class of drugs called benzodiazepines (ben-ZOH-die-AZ-uh-peens). Benzodiazepines are central nervous system depressants. They are used to sedate patients, help them sleep, prevent seizures, ease anxiety, and relax muscle spasms. These drugs are often informally called tranquilizers, sleeping pills, and muscle relaxants. Variations in the molecules of different benzo...
Benzodiazepines (Urine)
Benzodiazepines (Urine) Does this test have other names? Toxic urine screen, urine toxicology screen What is this test? This is a urine test to screen for a class of medicines called benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepines are central nervous system depressants. They are used to sedate patients, help them sleep, prevent seizures, ease anxiety, and relax muscle spasms. These medicines are often informally called tranquilizers, sleeping pills, and muscle relaxants. Variations in the molecules of different benzod...
Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Culture (Genital, Urine)
Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Culture (Genital, Urine) Does this test have other names? Group B strep screen What is this test? This test looks for group B streptococcus (GBS) bacteria in a culture sample either from your urine or from secretions in your vagina and rectum. GBS bacteria can cause severe illness in pregnant women and newborns. The bacteria are called hemolytic because they can break down red blood cells. A GBS infection makes it more likely that you will deliver preterm. Your amniotic flui...
Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Culture (Throat)
Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Culture (Throat) Does this test have other names? Strep test, throat culture, Streptococcal screen What is this test? This test looks for the bacteria that cause strep throat. This condition causes a severe sore throat and makes it painful to swallow. It's important to detect and treat strep throat as soon as possible because it can progress to more serious illnesses, such as rheumatic fever. The bacteria most likely to cause strep throat and bacterial sore throats in genera...
Bicarbonate
Bicarbonate Does this test have other names? Carbon dioxide test, CO2 test What is this test? This test measures the amount of bicarbonate, a form of carbon dioxide, in your blood. Bicarbonate, also known as HCO3, is a byproduct of your body's metabolism. Your blood brings bicarbonate to your lungs, and then it is exhaled as carbon dioxide. Your kidneys also help regulate bicarbonate. Bicarbonate is excreted and reabsorbed by your kidneys. This regulates your body's pH, or acid balance. Bicarbonate also...
Bilirubin (Amniotic Fluid)
Bilirubin (Amniotic Fluid) Does this test have other names? Amniocentesis, Amniotic fluid bilirubin optical density, OD What is this test? This test is done to see how well your baby is developing inside you. The liquid that surrounds the baby inside your womb is called amniotic fluid. Health care providers check the fluid for a pigment called bilirubin to see whether your baby has a blood type that is incompatible with yours. When this happens, it may cause the baby to develop severe anemia or other pr...
Blood Smear
Blood Smear Does this test have other names? Peripheral blood smear, blood smear analysis, peripheral blood film, smear What is this test? This is a blood test to look at the number and shape of your red and white blood cells and platelets to see whether they are normal. A blood smear can also detect parasites in your blood. Although it's more common to have your blood analyzed by computer, blood smears are still routinely done to rule out or identify certain diseases. Unlike the analysis done by machin...
Blood Type and Crossmatch
Blood Type and Crossmatch Does this test have other names? Blood typing, crossmatching What is this test? This is a set of tests that looks for harmful interactions between your blood and donor blood. The tests are done before a blood transfusion. Blood typing is the first step. This test finds out whether you have blood type A, AB, B, or O. Your blood is also tested to find out whether your Rh type is negative or positive. It's important for your healthcare provider to know your blood type in order to ...
Blood Urea Nitrogen
Blood Urea Nitrogen Does this test have other names? Urea nitrogen, BUN, serum BUN What is this test? A blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test measures the amount of urea nitrogen found in your blood. BUN levels help your healthcare provider see how well your kidneys are working. The test may be used along with other measurements to help diagnose a kidney disorder or find out how well your treatment for kidney disease is working. Why do I need this test? If your healthcare provider suspects that you have kidney...
BNP (Blood)
BNP (Blood) Does this test have other names? B-type natriuretic peptide What is this test? This test looks for the hormone BNP in your blood. BNP stands for brain natriuretic peptide. It is made inside the pumping chambers of your heart when pressure builds up from heart failure. The test is an important tool for healthcare providers to diagnose heart failure quickly. Heart failure occurs when your heart is not pumping blood well. This causes cells inside your heart to release BNP. This opens up blood v...
Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy
Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy Does this test have other names? Bone marrow exam What is this test? This is a two-part test that looks at the blood cells in a sample of bone marrow, the spongy tissue within certain bones. This test may help your healthcare provider diagnose or monitor a blood disease or health condition affecting your marrow. Your bone marrow has a liquid part and a solid part. Aspiration uses a needle to remove a sample of the liquid part of bone marrow. Biopsy uses a larger needle ...
Bordetella Pertussis Antibody (Blood)
Bordetella Pertussis Antibody (Blood) Does this test have other names? Whooping cough antibody test What is this test? This test checks for Bordetella pertussis antibodies in your blood. B. pertussis are the bacteria that cause pertussis, or whooping cough. Whooping cough is a highly contagious childhood infection that can also affect adults. It can be quite serious and sometimes deadly, especially in children younger than 12 months. Its hallmark symptom is a cough that may last 1 to 6 weeks, or possibl...
Borrelia Antibody (Blood)
Borrelia Antibody (Blood) Does this test have other names? Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies test, IgM/IgG test, Lyme disease test What is this test? This test measures the level of Borrelia antibodies in your blood. Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria cause Lyme disease. The bacteria are spread to humans through the bite of an infected tick. If not treated, Lyme disease can cause meningitis, or an infection of the tissues covering the brain and spinal cord. It can also cause liver and heart problems; facial pa...
Borrelia Antibody (CSF)
Borrelia Antibody (CSF) Does this test have other names? Lyme disease test (CSF) What is this test? This test looks for Borrelia antibodies in your cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria cause Lyme disease. The bacteria are spread to humans through the bite of an infected tick. If not treated, Lyme disease can cause meningitis, or an infection of the tissues covering the brain and spinal cord. It can also cause liver and heart problems; facial palsy, or the inability to control facial ...
Brucella Antibody
Brucella Antibody Does this test have other names? Brucella agglutination titer, Brucella antibody titer, Brucella-specific agglutination, Brucella microagglutination test, BMAT, standard tube agglutination test What is this test? This is a blood test for brucellosis. Brucellosis is an infectious disease usually caused by handling animals or milk products infected with the brucella bacteria. If you have brucellosis, your body will make certain antibodies to fight the brucella bacteria. This test looks f...
Brucella Antibody (CSF)
Brucella Antibody (CSF) Does this test have other names? CSF agglutination test What is this test? This test looks at fluid from your spinal cord to find out if you have an illness called brucellosis. Brucellosis is an infectious disease usually caused by handling animals or milk products infected with the brucella bacteria. If you have brucellosis, your body will make certain antibodies when it tries to fight these germs. Brucella antibodies can usually be found in your blood, liver, spleen, lymph node...
CA 125
CA 125 Does this test have other names? Cancer antigen 125, glycoprotein antigen, ovarian cancer antigen What is this test? This test looks for the protein CA 125 in your blood. CA 125 is higher in many women with ovarian cancer. Health care providers may use this test to look for ovarian cancer in women who may be at high risk because of family history or symptoms. They may also use this test to see if treatment is working. Or they may use it to find out if cancer is coming back after treatment. CA 125...
CA 19-9
CA 19-9 Does this test have other names? Cancer antigen 19-9, CA 19-9 radioimmunoassay (RIA) test What is this test? This test looks for the antigen called CA 19-9 in your blood. Antigens are substances that stimulate your body's immune system. Certain types of cancer cells send the CA 19-9 antigen into the blood, where it can be measured with this test. A high amount of CA 19-9 is most commonly caused by pancreatic cancer. But it can also be caused by the other cancers and by infections in your liver, ...
CA 27-29
CA 27-29 Does this test have other names? Cancer antigen 27-29 What is this test? CA 27-29 is a blood test used to watch certain types of cancer. CA 27-29 is the name of an antigen. An antigen is a substance that stimulates your body's defense system. Certain types of cancer cells send CA 27-29 antigen into the blood. This test measures how much CA 27-29 is in your blood. Breast cancer is the cancer most likely to release CA 27-29. The FDA has approved the CA 27-29 blood test as a way for health care pr...
Calcium (Blood)
Calcium (Blood) Does this test have other names? Total calcium, ionized calcium What is this test? A calcium blood test measures how much calcium is in your blood. Your health care provider can use this test to help diagnose and watch many conditions. There are two types of calcium blood tests. One is total calcium and the other is ionized calcium. Ionized calcium measures the "free" calcium in your blood. This is the calcium not bound to other parts of the blood. Why do I need this test? Your health ca...
Calcium (Urine)
Calcium (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urinalysis (calcium) What is this test? This test measures the level of calcium in your urine. Your body uses calcium in many ways, from developing teeth to building bones. Your parathyroid gland regulates the calcium in your body. It releases extra calcium from the bones when your body needs it. If your body has too much calcium, it is carried out of your body with your urine. If the calcium in your urine builds up and crystallizes, you may develop kidne...
Campylobacter Culture (Stool)
Campylobacter Culture (Stool) Does this test have other names? Stool sample examination, fecal (poop) smear What is this test? This test looks for harmful bacteria in a culture sample from your stool. One kind of harmful bacteria is Campylobacter. It is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the U.S. Campylobacter shows up in the stomach of several animals, including pigs and cattle. But it's most likely to be passed to people through raw and undercooked chicken and other poultry. In some cases, peop...
Cannabinoid Screen and Confirmation (Urine)
Cannabinoid Screen and Confirmation (Urine) Does this test have other names? Marijuana screen, drug abuse screening test, DAST, marijuana drug test (urine), drug abuse test What is this test? This is a two-part urine test to look for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC. THC is the active ingredient in marijuana. The test can find out if THC or related chemicals from marijuana called metabolites are in your urine. The test is considered quite accurate. You may have to do the urine test in a health care ...
Carbon Dioxide (Blood)
Carbon Dioxide (Blood) Does this test have other names? Carbon dioxide content, CO2 content, carbon dioxide blood test, bicarbonate blood test, bicarbonate test What is this test? This test measures how much carbon dioxide is in your blood. When you digest food, your body makes carbon dioxide as a waste product in the form of gas. Your blood carries this gas to your lungs. You exhale it and breathe in oxygen thousands of times a day. Carbon dioxide in your blood usually causes no problems. But if you ha...
Carbon Monoxide (Blood)
Carbon Monoxide (Blood) Does this test have other names? CO blood test, CO blood gas, arterial blood gas What is this test? This test measures the level of carbon monoxide (CO) in your blood. Carbon monoxide is a colorless, tasteless, and odorless gas made by combustion. Breathing in CO can be fatal because it doesn't allow oxygen to get to your heart and other organs. This test looks for carboxyhemoglobin. This substance is made in your blood when hemoglobin combines with carbon monoxide instead of oxy...
Carcinoembryonic Antigen
Carcinoembryonic Antigen Does this test have other names? CEA What is this test? This test measures a protein called carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in your blood. This protein is found on some types of cancer cells. CEA is called a tumor marker because it gives information about cancer in your body. This test may help your health care provider find out if your cancer treatment is working. It may also help your provider know if the cancer is coming back after treatment. The test can be used with cancers ...
Cardiac Biomarkers (Blood)
Cardiac Biomarkers (Blood) Does this test have other names? CK, CK-MB, TROPI, myoglobin, cardiac enzymes What is this test? This test measures the levels of cardiac biomarkers in your blood. These markers include enzymes, hormones, and proteins. Cardiac biomarkers show up in your blood after your heart has been under severe stress because it isn't getting enough oxygen. This might be because you've had a heart attack. But these levels can be high for other reasons. The levels of biomarkers are often use...
Cardiolipin Antibody
Cardiolipin Antibody Does this test have other names? Cardiolipin antibodies (IgG, IgM, IgA), anticardiolipin What is this test? A cardiolipin antibodies test looks for a certain kind of antibody in your blood. The antibodies are IgG (immunoglobulin G), IgA (immunoglobulin A), and IgM (immunoglobulin M). They are antibodies that form in response to cardiolipins. Cardiolipin is a phospholipid, or a kind of fat in the blood. The levels of these antibodies are often high in people with abnormal blood clott...
Catecholamines (Blood)
Catecholamines (Blood) Does this test have other names? Dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine tests, What is this test? This test measures the levels of catecholamines in your blood. The catecholamine hormones are epinephrine, norepinephrine; and dopamine. Epinephrine is also called adrenalin. Catecholamines are made in the adrenal glands. They are released when you have physical or emotional stress. These hormones have many functions in the body. These include sending nerve impulses in the brain, n...
Catecholamines (Urine)
Catecholamines (Urine) Does this test have other names? urine metanephrines, epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine What is this test? This test measures the levels of catecholamines in your urine. Catecholamines are hormones made by your adrenal glands. They are released when you have physical or emotional stress. These hormones include epinephrine and dopamine. They do many things in your body. They send nerve impulses in your brain, narrow blood vessels, and raise your heart rate. People who have a ra...
CD4-CD8 Ratio
CD4-CD8 Ratio Does this test have other names? CD4/CD8 ratio T-cell test What is this test? This test looks at the ratio of two important types of white blood cells in your blood. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell in your immune system. This test looks at two of them, CD4 and CD8. CD4 cells lead the fight against infections. CD8 cells can kill cancer cells and other invaders. If you have HIV, your CD4 cell count may be low. Without HIV treatment, your number of CD4 cells will likely keep fallin...
Ceruloplasmin (Blood)
Ceruloplasmin (Blood) Does this test have other names? CP What is this test? This test is used to measure how much of a copper-containing protein is in your blood. This test is used to diagnose problems related to copper. These include Wilson disease. Wilson disease is a rare inherited disease that can't be cured. Ceruloplasmin is a protein made in your liver. Ceruloplasmin stores and carries the mineral copper around your body. Ceruloplasmin carries 65% to 90% of the copper found in blood. Copper is vi...
Chlamydia Pneumoniae (Swab)
Chlamydia Pneumoniae (Swab) Does this test have other names? Chlamydophila pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) (swab), throat culture, pneumonia testing What is this test? If your healthcare provider suspects you have C. pneumoniae, he or she may do a swab test of your nose or throat to test for it. C. pneumoniae is just one of many strains of bacterial pneumonia that a person can become infected with. Why do I need this test? When you have a bacterial pneumonia such as C. pneumoniae, it can be potentially life-...
Chlamydia Trachomatis (Swab)
Chlamydia Trachomatis (Swab) Does this test have other names? C. trachomatis test, CZ test, chlamydia test What is this test? This test looks for Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria in a sample of cells collected by your healthcare provider. C. trachomatis bacteria cause chlamydia. Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the U.S. The CDC recommends that sexually active women 25 and younger be screened once a year for chlamydia. That's because as many as half of women who get chlamy...
Chlamydia Trachomatis (Urine)
Chlamydia Trachomatis (Urine) Does this test have other names? No. What is this test? This test looks for Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria in a sample of cells collected by your healthcare provider. C. trachomatis bacteria cause chlamydia. Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the U.S. The CDC recommends that sexually active women 25 and younger be screened once a year for chlamydia. That's because as many as half of women who get chlamydia don't have any symptoms. Men should ...
Chloride
Chloride Does this test have other names? Cl, serum chloride test What is this test? This test will find out how much chloride is in your blood and help your healthcare provider figure out if you may have certain kidney problems. Chloride is one of the ingredients in table salt. But it's also an important mineral in your body. It helps move fluids in and out of your blood cells. When you have an imbalance of chloride, you may start to feel ill. You can lose chloride if you've been vomiting or have diarr...
Chloride (Urine)
Chloride (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urine chloride What is this test? This test measures the amount of chloride in your urine. Your body tries to keep its acid-base (pH) level in balance. But certain conditions can cause an imbalance. If your body tissues become too alkaline, you may get metabolic alkalosis. Alkaline is the opposite of acidic. You can get metabolic alkalosis from taking medicines that make you urinate more (diuretics). It can also happen after you have been vomiting. Or it...
Cholesterol
Cholesterol Does this test have other names? Total blood cholesterol, serum cholesterol What is this test? This test measures the amount of cholesterol in your blood. This helps your healthcare provider figure out your risk for heart disease. Cholesterol is a substance found in all of your body's cells, where it plays an important role. But your body can have too much cholesterol if you eat the wrong types of foods. These include fried foods and foods with saturated or trans fats. Some health conditions...
Cholinesterase (Blood)
Cholinesterase (Blood) Does this test have other names? RBC cholinesterase, true cholinesterase, red cell cholinesterase, acetylcholinesterase What is this test? This test looks for signs of chemical poisoning in your blood. Cholinesterase is an enzyme that helps your nervous system work the way it should. Certain toxic chemicals in the environment can interfere with this enzyme and affect your nervous system. These chemicals include organophosphates and carbamates. They are most often found in insectic...
Chromosome Analysis
Chromosome Analysis Does this test have other names? Genetic testing, karyotyping What is this test? This test looks for changes, or abnormalities, in the chromosomes that make up your body's DNA, or genetic road map. Your chromosomes are found in the inner part of your cells, called your cell nucleus. They contain all the genes that have been passed down to you from your mother and father. Each person normally has 23 pairs of chromosomes in each cell (23 pairs = 46 chromosomes). One of these pairs carr...
Clinical Genetic Testing
Clinical Genetic Testing Does this test have other names? Genetic screening, DNA test or testing, chromosomal test, gene testing, DNA-based test What is this test? Genetic testing is usually done to screen newborns, children, or adults for inherited diseases or genes that put them at increased risk for a certain disease. Some parents choose to be screened before or during pregnancy to see whether they are carriers of a certain disease, such as hemophilia. Your genes are like a road map: They hold the bl...
Clonazepam Drug Level (Blood)
Clonazepam Level (Blood) Does this test have other names? Klonopin blood level What is this test? This test measures the amount of clonazepam in your blood. Clonazepam is a medicine used to treat seizures. It's often prescribed to adults and children who suffer from partial seizures and spasms. It may also be used to treat panic attacks, insomnia and generalized anxiety. It is a type of medicine called a benzodiazepine. Why do I need this test? You may have this test if it's possible you have taken an o...
Clostridium Difficile Toxin (Stool)
Clostridium Difficile Toxin (Stool) Does this test have other names? C. diff, C. difficile What is this test? This is a test to look at your stool for toxins produced by Clostridium difficile bacteria. Your gastrointestinal (GI) tract is home to many healthy bacteria, and sometimes C. difficile is one of them. But in some cases, taking broad-spectrum antibiotics can upset the balance of healthy bacteria in your gut and cause new or antibiotic-resistant strains of C. difficile to grow out of control. The...
Cocaine Screen
Cocaine Screen Does this test have other names? Cocaine drug test, toxicology screen, tox screen, substance abuse test, drug-of-abuse test What is this test? A cocaine screen is a test done to find out whether you have used cocaine recently. The test can be done on your urine, saliva, blood, hair, or sweat. It looks for the presence of cocaine or one of its metabolites, or chemicals your body makes to process cocaine. The two most important metabolites of cocaine are benzoylecgonine (ben-zoyl-ECK-oh-nee...
Complement C3 (Blood)
Complement C3 (Blood) Does this test have other names? Complement component 3, C3 What is this test? This test measures the amount of C3 proteins in your blood. These proteins are part of your complement system, which plays an important role in your immune system. Its job is to help kill disease-causing bacteria and viruses. It also responds to such invaders with inflammation that protects your body from disease. Complement component C3 is the most important and abundant protein in the complement system...
Complement C4 (Blood)
Complement C4 (Blood) Does this test have other names? Complement component 4, C4 What is this test? This test measures the amount of C4 proteins in your blood. These proteins are part of your complement system, which plays an important role in your immune system. Its job is to help kill disease-causing bacteria and viruses. It also responds to such invaders with inflammation that protects your body from disease. By measuring complement C4 levels, especially in how they compare with other parts of the c...
Complete Blood Count
Complete Blood Count Does this test have other names? CBC What is this test? The complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test used to screen your overall health and to look for many different illnesses, including anemia, infections, and leukemia. The test extracts a large amount of information from the blood sample you've given, including: The number and types of white blood cells (WBCs). There are 5 types of WBCs. All play a role in fighting infection. High numbers of WBCs, or of a specific type of WBC, ...
Complete Blood Count with Differential
Complete Blood Count with Differential Does this test have other names? CBC w/ diff What is this test? This panel of tests looks for many illnesses in your blood. These include anemia, infections, and leukemia. It can help see how your overall health is. The test gets a lot of information from your blood sample: The number and types of white blood cells (WBCs). Your body has 5 types of white blood cells. All play a role in fighting infections. High numbers of WBCs, or of a specific type of WBC, may mean...
Complete Urinalysis
Complete Urinalysis Does this test have other names? Urine test, urine examination, UA What is this test? This test looks at a sample of your urine. Your healthcare provider can use the results from this test to help diagnose, find, or track many conditions. These include: Diabetes Metabolic diseases such as phenylketonuria Kidney problems or infections Liver problems Urinary tract infections Lupus Congestive heart failure Cancer A lab can look at a urine sample in different ways: Visual inspection. If ...
Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
Comprehensive Metabolic Panel Does this test have other names? Metabolic panel, CMP, chem 14, chemistry panel, chemistry screen, (formerly SMAC, sequential multiple analyzer chemistry) What is this test? This test is a screening panel of 14 tests that look at your metabolism. Your body gets energy from food through a process called metabolism. The tests in this panel help see how well your liver and kidneys are working. These are two major organs involved in metabolism. These tests also measure your ele...
Cortisol (Blood)
Cortisol (Blood) Does this test have other names? Blood cortisol; plasma cortisol; cortisol, plasma What is this test? A serum cortisol test may help in the diagnosis of two fairly uncommon medical conditions: Cushing's syndrome and Addison's disease. The test also screens for other diseases that affect your pituitary and adrenal glands. It does so by measuring your blood level of a stress hormone called cortisol. Cortisol is a steroid hormone made by your adrenal glands. It helps your body respond to s...
Cortisol (Urine)
Cortisol (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urine free cortisol test What is this test? A urine cortisol test may help in the diagnosis of two fairly uncommon medical conditions: Cushing's syndrome and Addison's disease. The test also screens for other diseases that affect your pituitary and adrenal glands. It does so by measuring your urine level of a stress hormone called cortisol. Cortisol is a steroid hormone made by your adrenal glands. It helps your body respond to stress, regulate blood sug...
C-Peptide (Urine)
C-Peptide (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urine C-peptide What is this test? This test measures how much insulin your body makes. If you have low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) or other problems related to diabetes, your health care provider may order a C-peptide test. This test is often done using a blood sample, but a urine sample can also be used. Why do I need this test? If you have diabetes, it can be hard for a health care provider to tell how much insulin your pancreas makes by just looking ...
C-Reactive Protein (Blood)
C-Reactive Protein (Blood) Does this test have other names? CRP What is this test? The C-reactive protein (CRP) test is used to find swelling and infection in your body. It does this by measuring the amount of CRP in your blood. CRP is a protein made by the liver and sent into the bloodstream. Blood levels may be higher when you have swelling (inflammation) or an infection. Because CRP levels often go up before you have symptoms of pain or fever and drop down as you recover, the CRP test is especially u...
Creatine Kinase (Blood)
Creatine Kinase (Blood) Does this test have other names? Creatine phosphokinase, CK, CPK What is this test? This test measures the amount of an enzyme called creatine kinase (CK) in your blood. CK is a type of protein. The muscle cells in your body need CK to function. Levels of CK can rise after a heart attack, skeletal muscle injury, strenuous exercise, or drinking too much alcohol, and from taking certain medicines or supplements. If this test shows that your CK levels are high, you may have muscle o...
Creatine Kinase MB (Blood)
Creatine Kinase MB (Blood) Does this test have other names? CK-MB What is this test? This test measures the amount of an isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK) in your blood. It is called CK-MB. Your body makes 3 forms of CK, including CK-MB. CK is found in the heart, muscles, and other organs. These include the small intestine, brain, and uterus. If you have a heart attack, injured heart muscle cells release CK-MB into your blood. Because many tissues contain CK, high levels of CK can be a sign of a variety...
Creatine Kinase MB/Creatine Kinase Ratio
Creatine Kinase MB/Creatine Kinase Ratio Does this test have other names? Ratio of CK-MB to total CK, cardiac index What is this test? This test measures the amount of creatine kinase (CK), an enzyme, in your blood. It also measures a certain isoenzyme of CK called CK-MB. This is found mostly in the heart. Your body makes 3 forms of CK, including CK-MB. CK is found in the heart, muscles, and other organs including the small intestine, brain, and uterus. If you have a heart attack, injured heart muscle c...
Creatine Kinase with Isoenzymes (Blood)
Creatine Kinase with Isoenzymes (Blood) Does this test have other names? Creatine kinase, creatine phosphokinase with isoenzymes, CK, CPK, CK-MM, CK-MB, CK-BB What is this test? This test is used to find damage to muscles in your body, including your heart muscle. Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme found in your muscles. Enzymes are proteins that help your body's cells do their jobs. The level of the CK enzymes rises when you have damage to muscle cells in your body. The three types of CK are called isoe...
Creatinine (Blood)
Creatinine (Blood) Does this test have other names? Serum creatinine, blood creatinine What is this test? This is a blood test that measures how well your kidneys work. Clearing and filtering waste products out of your blood are important kidney functions. Creatinine is a normal waste product that builds up in your blood from using your muscles. Your body produces creatinine at a constant rate all the time, and healthy kidneys remove almost all of this creatinine. By comparing the amount of creatinine i...
Creatinine (Urine)
Creatinine (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urine creatinine What is this test? This test measures the level of a substance called creatinine in your urine. Creatinine is a waste product that your body makes when you use your muscles. It's also made when your body digests meat. Healthy kidneys remove creatinine from your blood, and it leaves your body in your urine. This test can find out whether your kidneys are working normally or to see if treatment for kidney disease is working. Why do I nee...
Creatinine Clearance
Creatinine Clearance Does this test have other names? CRCL, CCT What is this test? This test measures how well your kidneys are working and how well blood is flowing to them. Creatinine is a waste product that comes from normal muscle use and from meat protein in your diet. Healthy kidneys remove creatinine from the blood. It then passes out of your body through urine. The creatinine clearance test usually compares the creatinine level in a 24-hour urine sample with the creatinine level in your blood. T...
Cryofibrinogen
Cryofibrinogen Does this test have other names? Cryofibrinogenemia, CF What is this test? This test looks for an abnormal protein called cryofibrinogen in your blood plasma. People who have this abnormal protein may get a disorder called cryofibrinogenemia. The disorder rarely causes symptoms. But if it is not treated, it can become life-threatening and lead to stroke, heart attack, gangrene, or other health emergencies. Why do I need this test? You may have this test to find out whether you have cryofi...
Cryoglobulin
Cryoglobulin Does this test have other names? Cryocrit, cryoprotein What is this test? This test is done to find out if you have abnormal proteins in your blood. Blood proteins include normal immunoglobulins, or antibodies, like IgG and IgM. But they can also include antibodies linked to autoimmune diseases. These abnormal blood proteins are dissolved in your blood at body temperature. But when you are in a cold environment, they thicken and clump together. This restricts the blood flow to your joints, ...
Cystatin C
Cystatin C Does this test have other names? No. What is this test? This test measures the amount of a protein called cystatin C in your blood. Your body makes cystatin C constantly, and the protein is found in different fluids, including blood, spinal fluid, and breast milk. When your kidneys are healthy, they filter cystatin C out of the blood so it can be excreted in your urine. This is a relatively sensitive blood test to look at your kidney health. Why do I need this test? You may need this test if ...
Cystic Fibrosis Genetic Carrier Testing
Cystic Fibrosis Genetic Carrier Testing Does this test have other names? Cystic fibrosis genetic testing What is this test? This test is done to see if you carry a defective gene that may cause cystic fibrosis (CF) in your child. A defect in a gene is called a mutation. Genes are made from DNA, and mutations can be found by doing special tests that look at your DNA. CF is a serious disease that causes thick mucus to form in the lungs, pancreas, and other organs. CF may be treated, but the disease has no...
Cystic Fibrosis Sweat Test
Cystic Fibrosis Sweat Test Does this test have other names? Sweat chloride test What is this test? A sweat chloride test is the gold standard test for diagnosing cystic fibrosis (CF). CF is a disease that causes mucus to build up and clog organs, especially the lungs. This causes breathing problems. CF can be life-threatening if not treated. CF is an inherited disease that affects about 30,000 children and adults in the U.S. This simple test measures the amount of the chemical chloride, which is part of...
Cytomegalovirus (Amniotic Fluid)
Cytomegalovirus (Amniotic Fluid) Does this test have other names? No. What is this test? This test checks a developing baby for cytomegalovirus (CMV), a virus that belongs to the herpes family of viruses. The herpes family includes herpes simplex; varicella zoster, which causes chickenpox and shingles; and Epstein-Barr mononucleosis. Cytomegalovirus is common in adults and even children. The majority percent of all adults will have CMV by the time they're 40. It usually goes undetected because actual sy...
Cytomegalovirus (Blood)
Cytomegalovirus (Blood) Does this test have other names? CMV (serum), cytomegalovirus serologic test, cytomegalovirus antibody, IgG, IgM What is this test? This test looks for antibodies to cytomegalovirus (CMV), a virus in the herpes family, in your blood. CMV is so widespread that most people in the U.S. have been infected by the time they reach age 40, although many don't realize it. You can pick up the virus by handling or exchanging bodily fluids, such as saliva, blood, urine, breast milk, and seme...
Cytomegalovirus (Urine)
Cytomegalovirus (Urine) Does this test have other names? CMV test What is this test? This is a urine test for cytomegalovirus (CMV), a common virus that belongs to the herpes family. It is so widespread that most people in the U.S. have been infected by the time they reach age 40, although many don't realize it. You can pick up the virus by handling or exchanging bodily fluids, such as saliva, blood, urine, breast milk, and semen. The virus usually causes only a mild illness, but it can do serious harm ...
D-Dimer
D-Dimer Does this test have other names? Fragment D-dimer, fibrin degradation fragment What is this test? This is a blood test to look for a substance called D-dimer. This test is used to rule out a blood clot. D-dimer is a protein fragment from the break down of a blood clot. Blood clots generally begin to slowly break down after they are formed, and this process releases D-dimer into the blood. Why do I need this test? You may need this test if your health care provider suspects you have a dangerous b...
Deamidated Gliadin Antibody
Deamidated Gliadin Antibody Does this test have other names? Deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies, DGP, DGP-AGA What is this test? This test looks for the level of deamidated gliadin antibodies (DMG) in your blood. Gliadin is one of the main proteins in gluten. The test is used to help find out whether you have celiac disease, an autoimmune disease. If you have celiac disease, your immune system responds abnormally to gluten, which is mainly found in wheat, barley, and rye products. It's also found in ...
Dehydroepiandrosterone and Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
Dehydroepiandrosterone and Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Does this test have other names? DHEA, DHEA-S What is this test? This test measures the level of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in your blood. It may also be used to check how well your adrenal glands are working. DHEA is a hormone made by your adrenal glands and to a lesser degree by the ovaries and testes. DHEA is changed into DHEA-S in your adrenal glands and liver. In both men and women, the sex horm...
Digoxin Drug Level
Digoxin Drug Level Does this test have other names? Therapeutic digoxin monitoring, dig level What is this test? This test measures the amount of the heart drug digoxin in your blood. Digoxin is a drug that helps your heart pump better when you have an irregular or rapid heartbeat. This heartbeat is often caused by atrial fibrillation. Digoxin may also be given to you if you have congestive heart failure (CHF). When you take digoxin, it's important that the drug be at the right level for you to get the ...
Diphtheria Antitoxoid Antibody
Diphtheria Antitoxoid Antibody Does this test have other names? Anti-diphtheria test, DIPH2, DIPO, DIPE What is this test? This test measures the level of diphtheria antibodies in your blood. Diphtheria is a serious infectious disease caused by C. diphtheriae bacteria. Diphtheria affects the respiratory tract. It causes symptoms such as: Sore throat Weakness Nausea Trouble swallowing Trouble breathing Paralysis Heart failure Diphtheria can be fatal if not treated. The disease is very rare in the U.S. be...
Direct Antiglobulin
Direct Antiglobulin Does this test have other names? Direct Coombs test What is this test? The direct antiglobulin test is a blood test used to diagnose a type of anemia caused by your immune system. Your immune system is your body's defense system. It makes proteins called antibodies to attack foreign invaders. In some cases, your immune system can make antibodies against red blood cells. This causes red blood cells to break down, a condition called hemolytic anemia. Why do I need this test? This blood...
Direct Bilirubin
Direct Bilirubin Does this test have other names? Conjugated bilirubin What is this test? This test looks for bilirubin in your blood or urine. Bilirubin is a substance made when your body breaks down old red blood cells. This is a normal process. Bilirubin is also part of bile, which your liver makes to help digest the food you eat. A small amount of bilirubin in your blood is normal. Healthy adults make 250 to 350 milligrams (mg) of bilirubin each day. Bilirubin that is bound to a certain protein is c...
EBV Antibody
EBV Antibody Does this test have other names? Specific Epstein-Barr virus antibodies, EBV-specific antibodies What is this test? This is a blood test that checks for antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Most people are infected by this virus at some point. EBV often doesn't have any symptoms, but it can cause mononucleosis (mono) or other conditions in some people, especially teens and young adults. Why do I need this test? Your healthcare provider may order this test if you have symptoms that mi...
Electrolytes
Electrolytes Does this test have other names? Electrolyte panel, Lytes, sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl), carbon dioxide (CO2) What is this test? This test measures the main electrolytes in your body: sodium, chloride, potassium, and carbon dioxide. The cells in your body carefully balance fluids and electrolytes, which are electrically charged minerals. Electrolytes move fluid in and out of your cells. They carry nutrients into the cells and waste products back out. Electrolytes also help keep...
Endomysial Antibody
Endomysial Antibody Does this test have other names? EMA test What is this test? This test looks for certain antibodies in your blood that may mean you have celiac disease, an autoimmune disease. If you have celiac disease, your immune system responds abnormally to a protein called gluten. Gluten is found in wheat, barley, and rye products. Your body makes antibodies to the gluten called endomysial antibodies (EMA). These autoantibodies cause intestinal swelling and, if undetected, can damage the intest...
Entamoeba histolytica Antibody
Entamoeba histolytica Antibody Does this test have other names? Amebiasis antibody test What is this test? This blood test tells your healthcare provider whether you have antibodies in your blood to the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite causes the disease amebiasis. If you have been infected with E. histolytica, your immune system may make these antibodies. Your immune system makes proteins called antibodies to attack foreign invaders like this parasite. Why do I need this test? You may need...
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Does this test have other names? ESR, sed rate What is this test? Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a blood test. It measures how quickly erythrocytes, or red blood cells, separate from a blood sample that has been treated so the blood will not clot. During this test, a small amount of your blood will be put in an upright tube. A lab specialist will measure the rate that your red blood cells settle toward the bottom of the tube after 1 hour. If you have a condition t...
Erythropoietin (Blood)
Erythropoietin (Blood) Does this test have other names? EPO What is this test? This is a test to measure how much erythropoietin (EPO) you have in your blood. EPO is a hormone that your kidney makes to trigger your bone marrow to make red blood cells. A normal EPO level means that your body can make healthy red blood cells. Healthy oxygen levels are linked to having enough red blood cells. For this reason, EPO levels usually rise when your body isn't getting enough oxygen. Why do I need this test? You m...
Estradiol (Blood)
Estradiol (Blood) Does this test have other names? E2 What is this test? This test measures the amount of estradiol (E2), the form of estrogen made mainly by the ovaries. E2 p