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Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Wound Healing
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Wound Healing Hyperbaric oxygen therapy involves exposing the body to 100% oxygen at a pressure that is greater than what you normally experience. Wounds need oxygen to heal properly, and exposing a wound to 100% oxygen can, in some cases, speed the healing process. Procedure overview Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can be done in a number of ways. It can be given in a special type of room called a hyperbaric oxygen chamber. In this setting, you are completely immersed in 100% ox...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Spine and Brain
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Spine and Brain What is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body, in this case, the brain and spine. MRI is used to help diagnose a health problem. The MRI machine is a large, tube-shaped machine that creates a strong magnetic field around the patient. Some look like narrow tunnels. Others are more open. This magnetic ...
Lumbar Disk Replacement
Lumbar Disk Replacement What is a lumbar disk replacement? A lumbar disk replacement is a type of back or spine surgery. Your spine is made up of bones called vertebrae that are stacked on top of each other. Disks between the vertebrae work like cushions to allow the vertebrae to rotate and move without the bones rubbing against each other. The lumbar vertebrae and disks are at the bottom of your spine. Lumbar disk replacement involves replacing a worn or degenerated disk in the lower part of your spine...
X-rays of the Skull
X-rays of the Skull What is a skull X-ray? X-rays use invisible electromagnetic energy beams to make images of the skull. Standard X-rays are done for many reasons, including diagnosing tumors, infection, foreign bodies, or bone injuries. X-rays use external radiation to produce images of the body, its organs, and other internal structures to diagnose a problem. X-rays pass through body tissues onto specially treated plates (similar to camera film). It makes a "negative" type picture is made. The more s...
Sympathectomy
Sympathectomy What is a sympathectomy? Deep inside your chest, a structure called the sympathetic nerve chain runs up and down along your spine. During a sympathectomy, a surgeon cuts or clamps this nerve chain. This keeps nerve signals from passing through it. Why might I need a sympathectomy? This procedure is used to treat a condition called hyperhidrosis or heavy sweating in the palms of the hands, the face, the underarms, and sometimes the feet. It's also used for facial blushing, some chronic pain...
Positron Emission Tomography
Positron Emission Tomography What is a PET scan? A positron emission tomography (PET) scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging test. It is used to examine various body tissues to identify certain conditions by looking at blood flow, metabolism, and oxygen use. PET scans may also be used to see how well the treatment of certain diseases is working. For a PET scan, a tiny amount of a radioactive substance, called a radioactive tracer is used to show the metabolism of a particular organ or tissue. This t...
Nerve Conduction Velocity
Nerve Conduction Velocity What is a nerve conduction velocity test? A nerve conduction velocity (NCV) test — also called a nerve conduction study (NCS) — measures how fast an electrical impulse moves through your nerve. NCV can identify nerve damage. During the test, your nerve is stimulated, usually with electrode patches attached to your skin. Two electrodes are placed on the skin over your nerve. One electrode stimulates your nerve with a very mild electrical impulse. The other electrode records it. ...
Myelogram
Myelogram What is a myelogram? A myelogram is a diagnostic imaging test generally done by a radiologist. It uses a contrast dye and X-rays or computed tomography (CT) to look for problems in the spinal canal. Problems can develop in the spinal cord, nerve roots, and other tissues. This test is also called myelography. The contrast dye is injected into the spinal column before the procedure. The contrast dye appears on an X-ray screen allowing the radiologist to see the spinal cord, subarachnoid space, a...
Lumbar Puncture
Lumbar Puncture What is a lumbar puncture? A lumbar puncture (LP) or spinal tap may be done to diagnose or treat a condition. For this procedure, your healthcare provider inserts a hollow needle into the space surrounding the spinal column (subarachnoid space) in the lower back to withdraw some cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or inject medicine. CSF is a clear fluid that bathes and cushions the brain and spinal cord. It is continuously made and reabsorbed in the brain. CSF is made up of cells, water, proteins...
Gamma Knife Radiosurgery
Gamma Knife Radiosurgery What is Gamma Knife radiosurgery? Gamma Knife radiosurgery is a type of radiotherapy treatment. It’s also called stereotactic radiosurgery. Even though it’s called surgery, a Gamma Knife procedure does not use surgery. It also isn’t a knife. Gamma Knife uses very precise beams of gamma rays to treat an area of disease (lesion) or growth (tumor). It’s most often used in the brain. The beams of gamma radiation send a very intense dose of radiation to a small area without a need to...
Evoked Potentials Studies
Evoked Potentials Studies What is an evoked potentials study? Evoked potentials studies measure electrical activity in the brain in response to stimulation of sight, sound, or touch. Stimuli delivered to the brain through each of these senses evoke minute electrical signals. These signals travel along the nerves and through the spinal cord to specific regions of the brain and are picked up by electrodes, amplified, and displayed for a doctor to interpret. Evoked potentials studies involve three major te...
Endovascular Coiling
Endovascular Coiling What is endovascular coiling? Doctors use endovascular coiling, also called endovascular embolization, to block blood flow into an aneurysm. An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery. If an aneurysm ruptures, it can cause life-threatening bleeding and brain damage. Preventing blood flow into an aneurysm helps to keep it from rupturing. ACardio_20140304_v0_001 For endovascular coiling, doctors use a catheter, a long, thin tube inserted into a groin artery. The catheter ...
Electronystagmography (ENG)
Electronystagmography (ENG) What is electronystagmography? Electronystagmography (ENG) is a test used to evaluate people with vertigo and certain other hearing and vision disorders. Vertigo is a false sense of spinning or motion that can cause dizziness. For this test, electrodes are placed above and below the eye to record electrical activity. By measuring the changes in the electrical field within the eye, ENG can detect nystagmus in response to various stimuli. Nystagmus is an involuntary rapid eye m...
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
Electroencephalogram (EEG) What is an EEG? An EEG is a test that detects abnormalities in your brain waves, or in the electrical activity of your brain. During the procedure, electrodes consisting of small metal discs with thin wires are pasted onto your scalp. The electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of your brain cells. The charges are amplified and appear as a graph on a computer screen, or as a recording that may be printed out on paper. Your healthcare provider th...
Electromyography
Electromyography What is an electromyography? Electromyography (EMG) measures muscle response or electrical activity in response to a nerve’s stimulation of your muscle. The test is used to help detect neuromuscular abnormalities. During the test, one or more small needles (also called electrodes) are inserted through your skin into your muscle. The electrical activity picked up by the electrodes is then displayed on an oscilloscope (a monitor that displays electrical activity in the form of waves). An ...
Deep Brain Stimulation
Deep Brain Stimulation What is deep brain stimulation? Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a type of therapy that uses electrical stimulation to treat neurological conditions such as Parkinson disease (PD), essential tremor, and multiple sclerosis. DBS can be effective in treating movement problems such as tremors, stiffness, difficulty in walking, and slowed movement. While it does not cure these conditions, DBS can ease symptoms and decrease the amount of medications you need to treat the symptoms, thus i...
Craniotomy
Craniotomy What is a craniotomy? A craniotomy is the surgical removal of part of the bone from the skull to expose the brain for surgery. The surgeon uses specialized tools to remove the section of bone (the bone flap ) . After the brain surgery, the surgeon replaces the bone flap. ANerv_20140304_v0_002 For some craniotomy procedures, doctors use computers and imaging (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] or computerized tomography [CT] scans). Imaging scans help guide the doctor to the precise location wit...
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Brain
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Brain What is a CT scan of the brain? Computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is an imaging test that uses X-rays and a computer to make detailed images of the body. A CT scan shows details of the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than standard X-rays. In standard X-rays, a beam of energy is aimed at the body part being studied. A plate behind the body part captures the variations of the energy beam after it passes through skin, bone, mu...
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Spine
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Spine What is a CT scan of the spine? Computed tomography is an imaging test that uses X-rays and a computer to make detailed images of the body. A CT scan shows details of the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than standard X-rays. In standard X-rays, a beam of energy is aimed at the body part being studied. A plate behind the body part captures the variations of the energy beam after it passes through skin, bone, muscle, and other t...
Cervical Disk Replacement Surgery
Cervical Disk Replacement Surgery What is cervical disk replacement surgery? Your cervical spine is made up of the 7 bones, called cervical vertebrae, stacked on top of each other forming the neck area. The cervical disks are the cushions that lie between the cervical vertebrae. They act as shock absorbers to allow your neck to move freely. Your cervical spine also forms a protective tunnel for the upper part of your spinal cord to pass through. This part of your spinal cord contains the spinal nerves t...
Cerebral Arteriogram
Cerebral Arteriogram What is a cerebral arteriogram? An arteriogram is an X-ray of the blood vessels. It’s used to look for changes in the blood vessels, such as: Ballooning of a blood vessel (aneurysm) Narrowing of a blood vessel (stenosis) Blockages This test is also called angiogram. For arteriogram, your healthcare provider inserts a catheter into a large blood vessel and injects contrast dye. The contrast dye causes the blood vessels to appear on the X-ray image. This lets the healthcare provider b...
Carotid Artery Duplex Scan
Carotid Artery Duplex Scan What is a carotid artery duplex scan? You have 2 carotid arteries in your neck that bring blood from your heart to your brain. The test may also look at the vertebrobasilar artery. This blood vessel also brings blood to your brain. The health care provider uses a device called a transducer to make pictures of the arteries. The transducer sends out sound waves that bounce off your blood vessels. The sound waves are too high-pitched for you to hear. The transducer then picks up ...
Endoscopic Pituitary Surgery
Endoscopic Pituitary Surgery Endoscopic pituitary surgery, also called transsphenoidal endoscopic surgery, is the most common surgery used to remove pituitary tumors. The pituitary gland is located at the bottom of your brain and above the inside of your nose. It is responsible for regulating most of your body's hormones, the chemical messengers that travel through your blood. Endoscopic pituitary surgery is done with an instrument called an endoscope. An endoscope is a thin, rigid tube that has a micro...
Skull Base Surgery
Skull Base Surgery The skull is composed of bones and cartilage that form the face and the cranium, which surrounds the brain. You can feel the bones of the cranium on top of the skull. The five bones that form the bottom, or base, of the cranium also form the eye socket, roof of the nasal cavity, some of the sinuses, and the bones that surround the inner ear. The skull base is a crowded and complicated area with different openings that the spinal cord, many blood vessels, and nerves all pass through. S...
X-rays of the Spine, Neck, or Back
X-rays of the Spine, Neck, or Back (Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral, or Coccygeal X-ray Studies) Procedure overview What are X-rays of the spine, neck, or back? X-rays use invisible electromagnetic energy beams to make images of internal tissues, bones, and organs on film. Standard X-rays are performed for many reasons. These include diagnosing tumors or bone injuries. X-rays are made by using external radiation to produce images of the body, its organs, and other internal structures for diagnostic p...
Endovascular Neurosurgery and Interventional Neuroradiology
Endovascular Neurosurgery and Interventional Neuroradiology Neurosurgery is a branch of surgery that treats conditions and diseases of the brain and nervous system. Radiology is a medical specialty that helps diagnose and treat conditions and diseases using various radiology techniques. Endovascular neurosurgery is a subspecialty within neurosurgery that uses catheters and radiology to diagnose and treat various conditions and diseases of the central nervous system. The central nervous system is made up...